Create Homemade Hand Sanitizier (Formula a.k.a Recipes)


Hand Hygiene:


Hand hygiene is the personal care you give to your hands. The practice includes washing your hands regularly with soap and water or a hand sanitizer.

A person comes in contact with an average of millions of germs, viruses, and bacterial from people, objects, and even the environment. You may not notice, but the immune system helps us in the fight against these germs, viruses, and bacteria through the White Blood Cells or WBC. The easiest way these things enters the body is by contact and through the hands .

When these germs linger in your hands, they can quickly transfer to your mouth, nose, eyes, and even the ears. If you don't practice hand hygiene, you will fall sick and may even die.

Practicing good hand hygiene will not only keep you safe from illness and sickness but keep the people around you safe. Say that you are saving thousands of people that you come in contact with every day .


Why Should You Take Care of Your Hands?

Good hand hygiene is priceless. It is directly proportional to your health. If you keep poor hygiene habits, you are likely to get infected and sick all the time. It's important for health and social reasons. Taking good care of your hands will keep them clean by stopping the spread of germs, bacteria, and viruses. Your hand hygiene impacts the people around you, and that is why it is essential to stay clean.

To start a good hand hygiene practice, begin by washing your hands as often as possible. Since they are one of the most used parts of the body, they are likely to carry more germs than any other part .
Try to keep your nails as short as possible. Germs breed under them, and when you use them to eat, they fall in your food and enter the body through the mouth. Brush under them with a nail brush to rinse away any buildup of dirt.

Poor hand hygiene can have a negative effect on your self-esteem. However, maintaining good hand hygiene practices will instill a sense of pride and confidence in you .

Hand Sanitizers

The issue of how to go about keeping hand hygiene is always up for debate. Using hand sanitizer is one of those ways of ensuring that infections and microorganisms are killed at almost a hundred percent. A huge number of people around the world have formulated ways of creating several hand sanitizers because of its effectiveness against viral infections. Because of this, hand sanitizers have become popular. We shall be looking into what a hand sanitizer is and why the popularity has gone up in recent years.

What Is a Hand Sanitizer?

Hand sanitizer is a chemical agent applied to the hands, typically in the form of colorless liquid, foam, or gel to remove bacteria, pathogens, viruses, etc. When soap and water are unavailable for In the health setting, hand sanitizer is preferable as a common cleansing agent because it is effective against various viral infections and employed as a means of controlling epidemic infections.  The chemical ingredients in hand sanitizers kill or inactivate 99.9% of microorganisms when used in hand once. That is why it's widely used when compared to mere soap and water .
Hand sanitizer is a chemical agent applied to the hands, typically in the form of colorless liquid, foam, or gel to remove bacteria, pathogens, viruses, etc. When soap and water are unavailable for In the health setting, hand sanitizer is preferable as a common cleansing agent because it is effective against various viral infections and employed as a means of controlling epidemic infections.
The chemical ingredients in hand sanitizers kill or inactivate 99.9% of microorganisms when used in hand once. That is why it's widely used when compared to mere soap and water .

History and Understanding Agricultural Counseling

PRELIMINARY

History and understanding of agricultural extension in Posts plengdut.com 1 This is basic knowledge for you in understand more material on plengdut.com posts, specifically in understanding the eaning and purpose of agricultural extension. Knowledge of the history and development of extension activities agriculture will provide information on basic deep thinking explain some of the meaning of counseling. For example, you will know the beginning of extension activities to current developments, including factors that influence the development of activities counseling with its ups and downs, as well as differences and similarities understanding of counseling developed by several experts. You will gain knowledge about the history of good agricultural extension which developed in Indonesia and in several other countries.

Every country always strives to meet food needs residents, even trying to export surplus products agriculture to other countries. Thus, the development of the agricultural sector need attention and support, by involving various parties both those working directly on agricultural land and outside. Research and development of science and technology agriculture continues to be carried out to improve quality and production sustainable agriculture. The results of the research and development then delivered to the main actors in agricultural land, namely para the farmer. On the one hand, information or knowledge must reach the farmers can be involved in agricultural development; there are efforts to change with grow extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation of farmers. With thus, the success of agricultural development needs to be supported with specific efforts, processes, strategies and approaches to farmers, namely through agricultural extension activities.

Agricultur counseling has the dynamics of historical development quite long, with various objectives and adjustments to its activities, for example started from efforts to improve people's agriculture, increase production agriculture, meet food needs, and improve welfare the farmer. These efforts will never be realized by themselves but a farmer learning process is needed to obtain and understand information so that it becomes knowledge, train yourself to be able to do, and motivated to really act to improve themselves (Slamet, 1994). The learning process of farmers can be accelerated by special efforts systemic and strategic through the non-formal education system, so that farmers really want to act to improve themselves and participate in agricultur development. The learning process of farmers with an education system This informal activity is referred to as agricultural extension activities. Successful agricultural counseling requires professional staff and sub-professionals who are reliable, namely instructors who have the ability develop the learning process of the farmer until the farmer wants to do it continuous improvement.
Agricultur counseling has the dynamics of historical development quite long, with various objectives and adjustments to its activities, for example started from efforts to improve people's agriculture, increase production agriculture, meet food needs, and improve welfare the farmer. These efforts will never be realized by themselves but a farmer learning process is needed to obtain and understand information so that it becomes knowledge, train yourself to be able to do, and motivated to really act to improve themselves (Slamet, 1994). The learning process of farmers can be accelerated by special efforts systemic and strategic through the non-formal education system, so that farmers really want to act to improve themselves and participate in agricultur development. The learning process of farmers with an education system This informal activity is referred to as agricultural extension activities. Successful agricultural counseling requires professional staff and sub-professionals who are reliable, namely instructors who have the ability develop the learning process of the farmer until the farmer wants to do it continuous improvement.


The development of agricultural extension in Indonesia, can not be separated from agricultural development policies which were implemented in due course, began Dutch colonial period until the reform period together with application of regional autonomy. Likewise, outside Indonesia, experts have an understanding of counseling in each field or setting behind the underlying thought process, which is influenced by policy each country in due course. However, notions the counseling developed has concepts almost the same, among other things counseling is an educational process with non-formal system, behavior change, and empowerment of the three  discussion with your study group friends. With discussion, you will get many benefits, for example you will have understanding of material that is difficult to compare if the material You learn it yourself, you are trained to express opinions and listen and get input from your friends. Besides that, You can test the extent of your understanding of the material you have learned.

Know the Different Types of MOBA and Battle Royale Game Games

The type of game genre most loved in the era of mobile gadgets today is the MOBA game. MOBA itself is a type / genre of online multiplayer games in which online gamers are generally divided into two groups of opposing camps in a battle map (map). Briefly in English, MOBA means "Multiplayer Online Battle Arena". Besides MOBA there is also a genre of game that is much in demand by millennials, namely the "Battle royale game" genre. Examples of types of battle royale games are PUBG games, while examples of MOBA games are Mobile Legend (ML). Then, what are the differences between MOBA and Battle Royale Games? In this holiday post plengdut will be reviewed the difference between Battle Royale Game and the MOBA.

Online Multiplayer Battle Arena (MOBA)

Is AOS or Aeon of Strife became the first game to use the MOBA genre. AOS itself is actually a creation of a map of Starcraft games made by Blizzard Entertainment. Starcraft is a game with a setting of star wars, where the developer (Blizzard Entertainment) always has a characteristic in each game by providing a map editor for players to be able to be creative to make the game map as desired. The MOBA map only boomed after Blizzard launched the game Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos which revolves around the war between orcs, fairies, human nations and undeaths (demons) by including Icefrog's MOBA map in this game (2003).

The MOBA map in Warcraft is named "Defense of the Anciets" and is known to the public through its abbreviation, the DoTA game. For gamers who want to play MOBA DOTA that year, they must install warcraft first with the requirements of the Intel® Pentium® D or AMD ™ Athlon ™ 64 X2 and VGA minimum NVIDIA® GeForce PCs; 6800 (256MB) or ATI ™ HD 3650 Pro (256MB) or greater above and 2GB of PC memory and hard disk space for this game 3GB. So friends can imagine how expensive the pc needs at that time in order to feel the sensation of MOBA DoTA, plus at that time there was no hard drive with a size of 1 tera as it is now, the highest capacity hard disks that are generally sold are 40GB.

It was through this DoTA that the MOBA tournament was held for the first time precisely in the game Warcraft III: Frozen Throne. The term MOBA tournament or competition is currently known as eSports or electronic sports. On July 9, 2013, DoTA was officially taken over by Valve and apart from Blizzard by the name of DoTA 2 and design developers, Icefrog still held it. The height of the MOBA game makes game developers vying to make MOBA games, call it LOL (League of Legends-2009), Arena of Valor and many other types of MOBA games.
The presence of smartphone gadgets causes PCs to be left behind, although there are still many advantages of PCs / laptops that cannot be done by mobile phones. Smart phone users continue to increase because they are more active outside the home while accessing the internet via mobile while being mobile. This is a new opportunity for game developers MOBA version to expand their wings on smart phones like Android and iPhone. Various MOBA games also appear in the mobile version, call it MOBA such as Moonton's Mobile Legends Bang Bang which is loved by millennials and has a cross-country esports event that is routinely held every year. There is also AOV, Vainglory and many more MOBA mobile versions.
The presence of smartphone gadgets causes PCs to be left behind, although there are still many advantages of PCs / laptops that cannot be done by mobile phones. Smart phone users continue to increase because they are more active outside the home while accessing the internet via mobile while being mobile. This is a new opportunity for game developers MOBA version to expand their wings on smart phones like Android and iPhone. Various MOBA games also appear in the mobile version, call it MOBA such as Moonton's Mobile Legends Bang Bang which is loved by millennials and has a cross-country esports event that is routinely held every year. There is also AOV, Vainglory and many more MOBA mobile versions.


Characteristics of MOBA

Arena MOBA

Generally the arena map or MOBA map has the characteristics of the same shape between the enemy area and the player base area (mirrored map) with 3 lanes or commonly called lines. The third line is the top line (Top line), the bottom line (Bottom line) and the middle line (Middle line).
Generally the arena map or MOBA map has the characteristics of the same shape between the enemy area and the player base area (mirrored map) with 3 lanes or commonly called lines. The third line is the top line (Top line), the bottom line (Bottom line) and the middle line (Middle line).

Each MOBA line has towers, 3 towers on the enemy lines and 3 towers on the player's line before entering their respective base areas. Between the lines of the line there is a forest or usually called the jungle that can be used by players to cut the road so that the enemy is not visible or just looking for monsters (farming) to increase the coffers of money so that items can be bought.

MOBA Heroes Characters

The MOBA feature can also be seen from the choice of heroes / heroes / characters that the players will later choose. Usually there are 6 types of heroes to choose from, viz
  1. Fighter or heroes MOBA fighter, usually have the ability to fight at close range (malee fighter).
  2. Magic (Magi) is a hero with a magic skill.
  3. Marksman (Mm) is an archer / shooter or known as heroes range.
  4. Assassins are a reconnaissance type where these heroes are able to attack quickly and disappear / run fast too, but have a low hp.
  5. Tank are a type of heroes with large (immunity) cell phones, generally used as opening attacks or covering up teams from attacks, but have low attack power.
  6. Support is the MOBA hero heroes character, generally the skill support is more on healing (healing), disable (silent) so that the enemy cannot issue the skill, and stun (stopper) makes the enemy stop moving so that the team can easily attack.

MOBA game system

Beginning the MOBA game, players will choose the type of heroes from the 6 kinds of MOBA heroes as plengdut.com explained above, according to their team's needs. There are a total of 10 MOBA players in one arena with each team of 5 people. The players will later occupy each line according to the strategy used, where in addition to the players there is the support of small troops who come to attack according to the line and appear at certain time intervals. Player's Heroes can be strengthened by buying items provided in the game. To buy items, players can collect money / coins by killing jungle monsters, destroying enemy towers, killing heroes and opposing forces.

MOBA in order to achieve victory, each team that fights must hurry to destroy the base building / opponent's base. But there are also other MOBA modes where the battle takes place with the specified time, and the winner is calculated based on the number of enemy kill heroes or base destroyed before the game time runs out. There is also a one-way / line map MOBA mode such as Brawl mode on Mobile Legends.

Different MOBA and Battle Royale Game

PUBG is an example of the Battle Royale genre game. Although MOBA and Battle Royale look similar, where players group in teams and fight each other in an arena / map, but there are striking differences from the two games, namely:
  1. Battle Royale in one game played with the number of players can reach 100 people with each team totaling 5 members. Whereas Moba in one game can only be played by 10 people who are divided into two teams with each team member is 5 players.
  2. MOBA battle arenas are generally monotonous with the same map scheme in each game. Unlike the Battle Royale game with a large map arena, resembling a map of the city including rivers, mountains and oceans, so that it can accommodate hundreds of players to be more free to move.
  3. The battle royal game system is the "last stand team" or the last surviving team is the winner, while the MOBA system is the team that first destroys the opponent's building is the winner.
  4. Battle royal game is also called a competition game or "elimination", where if a team member is injured it must be quickly healed by other team members and if not healed then the team member will die and will not rise again until the game is finished or the team is destroyed in defeat another team. In contrast to MOBA, if a team member dies, then within the specified time interval will rise again because the MOBA system is not elimination but who first destroys the opponent's base, so before the goal is reached, the dead team will rise again.
  5. The choice of MOBA player character is provided based on the skills possessed such as fighter, mage, assassin, tank and support, while the battle royal game, the player's character is not determined and can be built up by players using items, for example being a sniper, healer etc..
  6. Battle royale requires a larger gadget resource than MOBA, as well as the internet needed for more connections because loading maps are bigger in battle royale than MOBA.

So you can adjust what games you will play according to the capacity of the gadget and the availability of the internet you have, want MOBA or Battle Royale Games?

The new female heroes in the Lokapala MOBA game are Marksman and Mage

In order to welcome the release of Lokapala MOBA, which was most likely to be carried out in early 2020, Anantarupa Studio began to give a little picture of what the heroes in the Lokapala MOBA game: Saga of the Six Realms. After previously they collaborated with one of the local airlines and Ragasukma comics, this time Lokapala presented two new MOBA heroes with roles Support and Marksman.

Through their Lokapala Instagram account they officially introduce the two new heroes. In the post also mentioned a description of the profile that became the origin of the two Lokapala heroes. In terms of appearance Neera is portrayed as a Lokapala female knight with the appearance of a mage, most likely when viewed from the profile of this one hero will be equipped with stun and buff skills that are useful for the fight team. As for Sena, Anantarupa's party seemed to be inspired by one of Srikandi's knights, where Sena was depicted as a woman armed with arrows. Interestingly the design of Sena itself looks futuristic with additional shoulder and clothing safety that makes it look more manly.
Through their Lokapala Instagram account they officially introduce the two new heroes. In the post also mentioned a description of the profile that became the origin of the two Lokapala heroes. In terms of appearance Neera is portrayed as a Lokapala female knight with the appearance of a mage, most likely when viewed from the profile of this one hero will be equipped with stun and buff skills that are useful for the fight team. As for Sena, Anantarupa's party seemed to be inspired by one of Srikandi's knights, where Sena was depicted as a woman armed with arrows. Interestingly the design of Sena itself looks futuristic with additional shoulder and clothing safety that makes it look more manly.

With the release of Nerra, Sena, Ilya, Gia, and the nine heroes which is a collaboration between Ragasukma Comics and Anantarupa Studio, so far Lokapala already has a roster of 13 heroes. Interestingly the four heroes that have been confirmed to be present in the Lokapala MOBA game are all women.
With the release of Nerra, Sena, Ilya, Gia, and the nine heroes which is a collaboration between Ragasukma Comics and Anantarupa Studio, so far Lokapala already has a roster of 13 heroes. Interestingly the four heroes that have been confirmed to be present in the Lokapala MOBA game are all women.

New in Release, MARVEL Super War Runs to Become MOBA Popular Game on Android

Marvel Super War, the first MOBA from Marvel for Mobile, was officially released for Android and iOS. MOBA with your favorite characters from Marvel can be directly downloaded at the Play Store and App Store. For those who are bored with MOBA games like Mobile Legends: Bang Bang, Heroes Evolved, Arena of Valor and the like, MARVEL Super War can be an interesting choice. This game immediately shot into the list of the best popular games on Android. As a reference, MARVEL Super War made by NetEaseGame was launched on December 17, 2019 on the Android platform. After going through two successful beta test phases, Marvel Super War has undergone polishing in the gameplay thanks to the input from the players who took the two tests. The game gets the first update every two days after launch, on 19 December 2019, exactly. Five days after launch, MARVEL Super War has been downloaded by more than 1 million Android users through the Play Store.

Along with the official release of Marvel Super War, also came a few additional features that will certainly spoil these MOBA players. However, the main highlight is the arrival of 2 new heroes favorite Marvel fans! The first is Captain America, the protector of the land of Uncle Sam! Captain America is a melee fighter who has extraordinary super endurance thanks to his shield and dangerous CC! The second is a funny spider man, Spider-Man. The owner's real name Peter Parker is a hero who can jump through the wall hanging on his spider's web. In addition, he can also give a large Samage to 1 person quickly! Marvel hero lovers who also love to play MOBA type games are required to play MARVEL Super War. How not, this game is Marvel's first MOBA game so that it is filled with phenomenal Marvel heroes such as Captain America, Spider-Man, Iron Man, Black Widow, Hulk, Thor, and many more. Marvel provides more than 42 Marvel heroes and villains, including the rising popular villain, Thanos.
Along with the official release of Marvel Super War, also came a few additional features that will certainly spoil these MOBA players. However, the main highlight is the arrival of 2 new heroes favorite Marvel fans! The first is Captain America, the protector of the land of Uncle Sam! Captain America is a melee fighter who has extraordinary super endurance cause to his shield and dangerous CC! The second is a funny spider man, Spider-Man. The owner's real name Peter Parker is a hero who can jump through the wall hanging on his spider's web. In addition, he can also give a large Samage to 1 person super quickly! Marvel hero lovers who also love to play MOBA type games are required to play MARVEL Super War. How not, this game is Marvel's first MOBA game so that it is filled with phenomenal Marvel heroes such as Captain America, Spider-Man, Iron Man, Black Widow, Hulk, Thor, and many more. Marvel provides more than 42 Marvel heroes and villains, including the rising popular villain, Thanos.

Quoted from Android Police, this game has been very much awaited by fans since its beta-closed version which was opened in the second quarter of 2019. Display gameplay is very similar to other NetEase game titles, Onmyoji Arena. When you first run the closed beta test, the game requires the Android operating system 5.1 and above, the Snapdragon 410 chipset and above, and 2 GB of memory availability. Judging from the skill placement button, the display of MARVEL Super War is almost the same as AoV and Mobile Legends. There are one, two and three skill buttons placed on the lower right.

But there is one additional button as the fourth button, the Special Ability. This type of hero is also almost the same as other MOBA which is divided into Fighter, Energy, Marksmen, Assassin, Tank, and Support. The six types of heroes will be divided into several levels of difficulty in use such as Beginner, Easy, Hard, and Extreme. The graphics offered are slick enough so that fans of the Marvel heroes can feel the captivating stance effects in the game. Well, you certainly can't wait to play using your favorite characters, right? What are you waiting for? It's time for you to download and join thousands of other Marvel fans in this MOBA! For you Android users, you can download Marvel Super War on Play Store and iOS lovers, this game can be downloaded on the App Store.

New MOBA Mobile Game from Megaxus Legend of Kingdoms

At present there are already many MOBA (Multiplayer Online Battle Arena) games for mobile platforms available such as Arena of Valor, Mobile Legends, Vainglory, Onmyoji Arena, to the Indonesian-made MOBA game, Lokapala. At the end of 2019, PT Megaxus Infotech or better known as Megaxus, announced its newest mobile game which will soon be launched under the title Legend of Kingdoms (or abbreviated "LOKI"). Megaxus which is one of the well-known game publishers in Indonesia certainly does not want to be left behind by the MOBA game trend. Just now it has officially announced its newest MOBA mobile game, Legend of Kingdoms. This game carries the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) genre, where 10 players who are divided into 2 teams will try their strategies and skills to win the battle.

Currently the Legend of Kingdoms (LOKI) game MOBA has entered the pre-registration stage on the Google Play Store. Later users who pre-register will get a prize that is quite interesting. Like the MOBA game in general, this Legend of Kingdoms will still fight 10 players who are divided into two teams. Each player has one goal, namely to destroy the tower to penetrate the enemy base.

The heroes provided by this game also have a royal theme. Later there are heroes like those found in the game Three Kingdoms. Of course this makes this game different from other MOBA games. Like DotA 2, this Legend of Kingdoms game will also present items in the form of ward to help players find out the enemy location. Then there is a courier system that is practically similar to the one in the DotA 2 game.

Uniquely, in the Game of Legend of Kingdoms, players can choose various legendary heroes from the Three Kingdoms era who came from China legend kingdoms and also from other kingdoms. Besides Legend of Kingdoms has features that are not found in other MOBA mobile games that have been circulating at this time, such as Ward, Sentry, and Courier features. Starting today, pre-registration of Legend of Kingdoms has been opened on the Google Play Store. Apart from the Google Play Store, players can also pre-register from the official website of Legend of Kingdoms. A variety of attractive prizes have also been prepared for players who pre-register. The more number of players who pre-register, the more prizes players will get.
Uniquely, in the Game of Legend of Kingdoms, players can choose various legendary heroes from the Three Kingdoms era who came from China legend kingdoms and also from other kingdoms. Besides Legend of Kingdoms has features that are not found in other MOBA mobile games that have been circulating at this time, such as Ward, Sentry, and Courier features. Starting today, pre-registration of Legend of Kingdoms has been opened on the Google Play Store. Apart from the Google Play Store, players can also pre-register from the official website of Legend of Kingdoms. A variety of attractive prizes have also been prepared for players who pre-register. The more number of players who pre-register, the more prizes players will get.


The launch of Legend of Kingdoms is planned to be carried out in early 2020, for the Android and IOS platforms. "Currently our team is preparing to launch Legends of Kingdoms as well as possible to ensure the game can be played smoothly and the features available in the game can be enjoyed to the fullest when it is launched later," said Bambang Budiman, Megaxus's Senior Content Manager.

Factors Influencing Efficacy of Sterilization and Disinfection antimicrobial agent is affected by at following factors

DEFINITIONS

Sterilization: It is the process by which all living microorganisms including viable spores, are destroyed with reduction of at least 106 log colony forming units (CFU) of microorganisms and their spores. Disinfection: It refers to a process that destroys or removes most if not all pathogenic organisms but not bacterial spores with reduction of at least 103 log CFU of microorganism but not spores. Asepsis: It is a process where the chemical agents (called antiseptics) applied to body surfaces (skin) will kill or inhibit the pathogenic microorganisms (and also commensals) present on skin. 

Decontamination (or Sanitization): It refers to the reduction of pathogenic microbes to a level at which items are considered as safe to handle without protective attire with reduction of at least 1 log CFU of microorganism but not spores.
Decontamination (or Sanitization): It refers to the reduction of pathogenic microbes to a level at which items are considered as safe to handle without protective attire with reduction of at least 1 log CFU of microorganism but not spores.


Factors Influencing Efficacy of Sterilant/Disinfectant

The efficiency of a sterilant/disinfectant antimicrobial agent is affected by at following factors:

1.Organism load: Larger microbial population requires a longer time to die than a smaller one.
2. Nature of organisms: It greatly influences the efficacy of the disinfectants
3. Concentration of the chemical agent and temperature of the physical agent
4. Nature of the sterilant/disinfectant:
  • Microbicidal ability, Rapidity of action, Residual activity.
  • Ability to act in presence of organic matter such as pus, blood, and stool.

5. Duration of exposure: More is the exposure time, better is the efficacy.
6. pH: Heat kills more readily at an acidic pH
7. Biofilm formation: Prevents the entry of disinfectants.

Microbial pathogenicity; Toxin, Cell, Protein

Microbial pathogenicity depends upon the sum total of several factors as described below.
Microbial pathogenicity depends upon the sum total of several factors as described below.


1. Route of transmission of infection 
2. Infective dose of the organism: Minimum inoculum size that is capable of initiating an infection. (table given below)

Low infective dose
Large infective dose
Shigella: Very low (as low as 10 bacilli)
Escherichia coli  (106 – 108 bacilli)
Cryptosporidium parvum: very low (10 to 30 oocysts)
Salmonella (102 – 105  bacilli)
Escherichia coli O157: H7  (< 10 bacilli)
Vibrio cholerae (106 – 108 bacilli)
Entamoeba and Giardia: few cysts

Campylobacter jejuni (500 bacilli)


3. Evasion of the local defenses
4. Adhesion: By Fimbriae or pili, other adhesins, biofilm formation
5. Invasion: Virulence factors that help in invasion include:
  • Virulence marker antigen or invasion plasmid antigens in Shigella
  • Enzymes: Invasion of bacteria is enhanced by many enzymes: Hyaluronidase, Collagenase, Streptokinase (fibrinolysin) and IgA proteases
  • Antiphagocytic factors: Capsule
  • Cell wall protein such as: Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus and M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Cytotoxins: Interfere with chemotaxis or killing of phagocytes. For example, S. aureus produces hemolysins and leukocidins that lyse and damage RBCs and WBCs.
Mechanism of intracellular survival
Organism
Inhibition of  phagolysosome fusion
Legionella species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia
Resistance to lysosomal enzymes
Salmonella Typhimurium, Coxiella, Mycobacterium leprae, Leishmania
Adaptation to cytoplasmic replication
Listeria, Rickettsia and Francisella tularensis

Examples of Obligate intracellular organism include:

  • Bacteria: Mycobacterium leprae, Rickettsia, Chlamydia and Coxiella
  • All viruses
  • Fungi: Pneumocystis jirovecii
  • Parasite: Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Plasmodium, Leishmania, Babesia, Trypanosomacruzi

Differences between bacterial endotoxins and exotoxins

Endotoxins
Exotoxins
Lipopolysaccharides in nature
Protein in nature
Part of Gram-negative bacterial cell wall
Secreted both by Gram-positive and negative bacteria; diffuse into surrounding medium
Released by cell lysis, Not by secretion
Actively secreted by the bacteria
Highly stable
Heat labile destroyed at 60°C
Mode of action – Induces ↑IL-1 and TNF
Mostly enzyme like action
Nonspecific (fever, shock, etc.)
Specific action on particular tissues
No specific affinity for tissues
Specific affinity for tissues
Only large doses are fatal
More potent, even smaller doses fatal
Poorly antigenic
Highly antigenic
Neutralization by antibodies is ineffective
Neutralized by specific antibodies
No effective vaccine is available using endotoxin
Toxoid forms are used as vaccine, e.g. tetanus toxoid

Exotoxins and their mechanisms of action

Toxins (Exotoxins)
Mechanism
Enterotoxin and TSST of S.aureus
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin
Act as super antigen; stimulate T cell non-specifically, to release of large amounts of cytokines.
Diphtheria toxin and Exotoxin-A of Pseudomonas
Inhibits protein synthesis (by inhibiting elongation factor-2)
Anthrax toxin
↑cAMP in target cell, edema
α toxin  of Clostridium perfringens
Lecithinase and phospholipase activity → causes myonecrosis
Tetanus toxin (tetanospasmin)
Decrease in neurotransmitter (GABA and glycine) release from the inhibitory neurons → Spastic paralysis
Botulinum toxin
Decrease in neurotransmitter (acetyl choline) release from neurons → Flaccid paralysis
Heat labile toxin of ETEC and Cholera toxin (V.cholerae)
Activation of adenylate cyclase → ↑cAMP in target cell → Secretory diarrhea
Heat stable toxin Verocytotoxin (EHEC) and  Shiga toxin (Shigella dysenteriae type-1)
↑cGMP in target cell → Secretory diarrhea
Diphtheria toxin and Exo toxin -A of Pseudomonas
Inhibit protein  synthesis (by inhibiting ribosome)

What are the characteristics of epidermal tissue explained?

Epidermal tissue has the following characteristics.
Epidermal tissue has the following characteristics.

  1. Generally epidermal consists of one layer of cells. An example is the velamen cells in the orchid root.
  2. Epidermal having cells that are tightly arranged without intercellular space.
  3. The shape of cells varies, for example tubular shape on dicot leaf leaves, elongated shape on epidermal cells of monocot leaf leaves and hexagonal shape on Aloe cristata leaf strands.
  4. Cells epidermal have many vacuoles and protoplasts which store various metabolic products.
  5. The thickness of the epidermal cell wall varies. The seeds and leaves of coniferous plants have very thick cell walls.
  6. There are epidermal cell walls that contain lignin, cuticles, and pectin. In plants that live in dry habitats, epidermal cell walls have thick cuticles. On the cuticle surface there are wax deposits, causing the leaves and fruit to look shiny. The waxy coating is very important to keep the organ moist.
  7. Epidermal initial cells can partially develop and modify into other additional devices called derivatives, epidermis, such as stomata (leaf mouths), trichomes (hairs), emergencies, spines (thorns), germ cells (germ cells) silica), velamen, and litokis.