Bacteria Anatomy: A bacterium is a unicellular microorganism that has no other membrane-bound nuclei or organelles

Germs ... fleas ... prokaryotes ... monera. Whatever you call it, bacteria outnumber any other type of life on this planet. In this article, we will look at small creatures to determine exactly what they are, as well as the human methods that we do not significantly use to try and classify them.

Definition / General Anatomy

A bacterium is a unicellular microorganism that has no other membrane-bound nuclei or organelles. Bacteria are sometimes called 'prokaryotes.' In Greek, 'prokaryote' literally means 'before seeds' (where 'seeds' are the core.) Bacteria adapt to be suitable for their environment, and therefore come in various forms and form. However, they all have some parts in common.
A bacterium is a unicellular microorganism that has no other membrane-bound nuclei or organelles. Bacteria are sometimes called 'prokaryotes.' In Greek, 'prokaryote' literally means 'before seeds' (where 'seeds' are the core.) Bacteria adapt to be suitable for their environment, and therefore come in various forms and form. However, they all have some parts in common.

  1. Capsules: A protective, often slimy, coating, often of sugar, which helps protect bacteria. This also makes bacteria deadly. This means that bacteria are more likely to cause disease, because they help cells survive attacks. For example, bacteria can survive attacks from the human immune system.
  2. Cell walls: In bacteria, cell walls are usually made of peptidoglycan, proteins and complex sugars. This structure gives cells some rigidity and protection.
  3. Cell membrane: As in most cells, the bacteria plasma membrane acts by coordinating parts of the molecule into and out of the cell.
  4. Cytoplasm: Again, as in most cells, cytoplasm functions as the medium in which the molecules are transported, as well as a system to maintain the best conditions (such as temperature and pH) for the cell.
  5. Ribosomes: The main site for bacteria protein synthesis.
  6. Number six is "nucleosomes." This term will not be discussed in this article.
  7. Nucleoid: this is the area where bacteria DNA is located. Again, it's not the same as the core because it's not surrounded by a membrane.
  8. Flagella: In many bacteria, flagella are present, and are the means by which cells move around.

Bacteria Classification: A Brief History

Because bacteria are very diverse both in shape and habitat, biologists have struggled with their classification, (also called "taxonomies." They) For many years, bacteria were called "monera," and were placed in a kingdom of the same name. Although you may still hear bacteria referred to as monera, that is not a term currently accepted among biologists.

Life is now classified into one of three domains, the domain is a higher taxonomic level than the kingdom, and is based on the DNA of an organism. Bacteria take two of three domains: archaebacteria and eubacteria. (The third domain, eukaryotes, consists of organisms that have nucleated cells.)

Archaebacteria

Although their name might imply the opposite, archaebacteria are not older than other bacteria. They share some unusual characteristics that distinguish them from most bacteria. archaebacteria:
  • Lack of peptidoglycan on their cell walls
  • Has lipids (fat molecules) that are unique in structure.
  • Often live in extreme conditions (such as high salt or environmental heat,) and are able to create and use energy from sources such as hydrogen gas.

Eubacteria

Eubacteria are much better learned from archaebacteria. Scientists try to understand the number and diversity of these organisms by grouping them in various ways. The following are just a few of the ways that are accepted in the scientific and medical community:
  1. Shape: Bacteria are usually one of three forms. Round cocci, rod-shaped bacilli, spirilla (also called spiroket) are spirals.
  2. Gram staining: One of the more interesting ways that group bacterial scientists is how they react to Gram staining. In this process, bacteria are subject to chemical stains. The color of bacterial stains depends on the number of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. In Gram-positive cells, the peptidoglycan layer is thick, and cells are purple, in Gram-negative cells the layer is thinner, and cells are pink.
  3. Antibiotic sensitivity: Peptidoglycan also plays a role in how some types of effective drugs are to help the body eliminate bacterial infections. Some antibiotics work by preventing peptidoglycan from forming properly, enabling the immune system to work more efficiently when wiping out an infection.
  4. Oxygen needs: Some bacteria, aerobes, need oxygen to carry out their daily metabolic processes. Others, like those who live in the human digestive tract, do not. This organism is called anaerobic.
  5. Nutrition: Some autotrophic bacteria, which means they can make their own food. Others are heterotrophs who need outside sources of nutrition.

Again, these are just a few of the ways we classify bacteria. Other ways include their habitat, if they cause disease or are harmless, even whether they are helpful to humans or not.

Summary

Bacteria are single-celled organisms that have no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. Bacteria are everywhere, that is, they are found in every environment on Earth, and are very diverse. They have historically been classified using different characteristics, but most biologists today agree that, based on their DNA, they belong to two of the three recognized domains: archaebacteria and eubacteria. We can then continue their groups in other ways, such as whether they cause illness or not, or how they get their food.

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