Role Of Microorganisms in Diseases, Plant & Health Sector

Augustino Bassi (1773–1856) demonstrated in 1835 that a silkworm disease called "muscardine" was due to a fungal infection. MJ Berkeley (1845) proved that the great potato blight of Ireland was caused by a fungus. Following his success with the study of fermentation, Pasteur imeestigated the pebrine disease of silueosm.

Indirect transmission was recognized in the 1840s, when American poet-physician Oliver Wendell Holmes (1843) in Boston, USA and Ignaz Semmelweis in Vienna (1846) had independently concluded that puerperal sepsis was contagious. Semmelweis also identified its mode of transmission by doctors and medical students attending on women in labor in the hospital and had prevented it by the simple measure of washing hands in an antiseptic solution. Semmelweis was persecuted by medical orthodoxy and driven insane for the service to medicine and humanity.

The Role of Microorganisms in Plants

Biological control, especially in plant diseases using microorganisms, began more than 70 years ago, precisely in the 1920s to 1930 when antibiotics produced by soil microorganisms were first introduced, but several experiments have not been successful until research on biological control has been stalled for approximately 20 years. year. 

The attention of plant diseases experts to the biological control method rose again when at Barkley in 1963 an international symposium on biological control was held with the theme "Ecology of Soilborne Plant Pathogen-Prelude to Biological Control", the first book on biological control was published in 1974 by Baker and Cook with the title "Biological Control of Plant Pathogens", a committee for biological control at the American Phytopathological Society was established in 1976. 

Now it has become a knowledge that biological control will play an important role in agriculture in the future. this is mainly due to concerns about the dangers of using chemicals as pesticides. A number of microbes have been reported in various effective studies as agents of biological control of pests and plant diseases including those of the genera Agrobacterium, Ampelomyces, Arthrobotys, Ascocoryne, Bacilllls, Bdellovibrio, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Coniothyrium, Dactylella, Endothia, Erwinia, Fossil, Fuscoclius, Fusclocli, Fusclius Hansfordia, Laetisaria, Myrothecium, Nematophthora, Penicillium, Peniophora, Phialophora, Pseudomonas, Pythium, Scytalidium, Sporidesminium, Sphaerellopsiss, Trichoderma, and Verticillium.

Utilization of Microorganisms in the Health Sector

The existence of a genetic engineering process with the use of microorganisms increases the role of the pharmaceutical industry in producing human protein. Through DNA recombination techniques, human DNA sequences that encode various proteins can be combined with the bacterial genum, and by growing reconciliatory bacteria in fermentors, human proteins can be produced commercially.  Insulin is absolutely needed by humans. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islands of langerhans in the pancreas which functions to regulate carbohydrate metabolism. In food it is converted into glucose monosaccharides, the main carbohydrate in the blood. Some carbohydrates such as fructose and cellulose can be used as cell energy but are not converted into glycose and do not participate in the regulation of glucose metabolism.    Insulin is released by beta cells (β cells) in the pancreas in response to rising blood glucose levels, at the time after eating. Insulin allows the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as an energy source, convert it to other molecules as needed, or to be stored. Insulin is also the main control signal of glucose conversion into glycogen for internal storage in the liver and muscle cells. If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, cells do not respond to insulin (insensitive or insulin resistant), or if insulin itself is not produced by beta cells due to the risk of beta cells in the pancreas, glucose cannot be utilized by body cells or even stored in the form of food reserves in the liver and muscle cells. The effect that occurs is an increase in glucose levels in the blood, decreased protein synthesis, and disruption of metabolic processes in the body.
The existence of a genetic engineering process with the use of microorganisms increases the role of the pharmaceutical industry in producing human protein. Through DNA recombination techniques, human DNA sequences that encode various proteins can be combined with the bacterial genum, and by growing reconciliatory bacteria in fermentors, human proteins can be produced commercially.

Insulin is absolutely needed by humans. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islands of langerhans in the pancreas which functions to regulate carbohydrate metabolism. In food it is converted into glucose monosaccharides, the main carbohydrate in the blood. Some carbohydrates such as fructose and cellulose can be used as cell energy but are not converted into glycose and do not participate in the regulation of glucose metabolism.

Insulin is released by beta cells (β cells) in the pancreas in response to rising blood glucose levels, at the time after eating. Insulin allows the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as an energy source, convert it to other molecules as needed, or to be stored. Insulin is also the main control signal of glucose conversion into glycogen for internal storage in the liver and muscle cells. 
If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, cells do not respond to insulin (insensitive or insulin resistant), or if insulin itself is not produced by beta cells due to the risk of beta cells in the pancreas, glucose cannot be utilized by body cells or even stored in the form of food reserves in the liver and muscle cells. The effect that occurs is an increase in glucose levels in the blood, decreased protein synthesis, and disruption of metabolic processes in the body.


Insulin is needed for people with diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder of metabolism, especially people with type 1 diabetes who need exogenous insulin intake. Initially, the source of insulin for clinical use in humans is obtained from the pancreas of cattle, horses, pigs, and fish. The insulins obtained from these sources are effective for humans because they are identical to human insulin. There are only 3 amino acid differences between bovine insulin and human insulin, and there is only a difference of 1 amino acid between pig insulin and human insulin.

Due to the mechanism of allergic reactions arising from the use of insulin from animals (cows, pigs, fish, and horses) in the long run, especially for people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, then insulin from humans begins to be produced using genetic engineering techniques.

Vitamins are essential nutritional factors for humans. Some vitamins can be produced by fermentation of microorganisms, and used as food supplements. For example vitamin B12 can be produced as a by-product in antibiotic fermentation by Streptomyces. Vitamn B12 is also obtained from Propionibacteriaum shermanii or Paracoccus denitrificans fermentation.

The main problem of commercial amino acid production through microorganism fermentation is the existence of a natural mechanism of control of microorganism regulation that limits the amount of amino acids produced and released from cells. This problem can be overcome by genetically engineered strains of microorganisms that do not have control mechanisms like wild strains.

Humans need a variety of amino acids, including lysine. The concentration of lysine in grains is not enough to meet human nutritional needs. Lysine is produced by fermentation of microorganisms, so it can be used as a food supplement for humans and as an ingredient in cereal. Methionine is also produced through chemical synthesis and is used as a food supplement.

In addition to the types of microorganisms that can be utilized in the health sector, there are also types of microorganisms that can be detrimental to human health (causing disease), including:

Microorganisms that cause disease

  • The cause of disease, both in humans, animals and plants. For example Strptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria.
  • Causes of food spoilage (spoilage), Some of the microorganisms can change the taste and aroma of food so it is considered a spoilage microorganism. In meat spoilage, microorganisms that produce proteolytic enzymes can remodel proteins

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