History and Understanding Agricultural Counseling


History and understanding of agricultural extension in Posts plengdut.com 1 This is basic knowledge for you in understand more material on plengdut.com posts, specifically in understanding the eaning and purpose of agricultural extension. Knowledge of the history and development of extension activities agriculture will provide information on basic deep thinking explain some of the meaning of counseling. For example, you will know the beginning of extension activities to current developments, including factors that influence the development of activities counseling with its ups and downs, as well as differences and similarities understanding of counseling developed by several experts. You will gain knowledge about the history of good agricultural extension which developed in Indonesia and in several other countries.

Every country always strives to meet food needs residents, even trying to export surplus products agriculture to other countries. Thus, the development of the agricultural sector need attention and support, by involving various parties both those working directly on agricultural land and outside. Research and development of science and technology agriculture continues to be carried out to improve quality and production sustainable agriculture. The results of the research and development then delivered to the main actors in agricultural land, namely para the farmer. On the one hand, information or knowledge must reach the farmers can be involved in agricultural development; there are efforts to change with grow extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation of farmers. With thus, the success of agricultural development needs to be supported with specific efforts, processes, strategies and approaches to farmers, namely through agricultural extension activities.

Agricultur counseling has the dynamics of historical development quite long, with various objectives and adjustments to its activities, for example started from efforts to improve people's agriculture, increase production agriculture, meet food needs, and improve welfare the farmer. These efforts will never be realized by themselves but a farmer learning process is needed to obtain and understand information so that it becomes knowledge, train yourself to be able to do, and motivated to really act to improve themselves (Slamet, 1994). The learning process of farmers can be accelerated by special efforts systemic and strategic through the non-formal education system, so that farmers really want to act to improve themselves and participate in agricultur development. The learning process of farmers with an education system This informal activity is referred to as agricultural extension activities. Successful agricultural counseling requires professional staff and sub-professionals who are reliable, namely instructors who have the ability develop the learning process of the farmer until the farmer wants to do it continuous improvement.
Agricultur counseling has the dynamics of historical development quite long, with various objectives and adjustments to its activities, for example started from efforts to improve people's agriculture, increase production agriculture, meet food needs, and improve welfare the farmer. These efforts will never be realized by themselves but a farmer learning process is needed to obtain and understand information so that it becomes knowledge, train yourself to be able to do, and motivated to really act to improve themselves (Slamet, 1994). The learning process of farmers can be accelerated by special efforts systemic and strategic through the non-formal education system, so that farmers really want to act to improve themselves and participate in agricultur development. The learning process of farmers with an education system This informal activity is referred to as agricultural extension activities. Successful agricultural counseling requires professional staff and sub-professionals who are reliable, namely instructors who have the ability develop the learning process of the farmer until the farmer wants to do it continuous improvement.

The development of agricultural extension in Indonesia, can not be separated from agricultural development policies which were implemented in due course, began Dutch colonial period until the reform period together with application of regional autonomy. Likewise, outside Indonesia, experts have an understanding of counseling in each field or setting behind the underlying thought process, which is influenced by policy each country in due course. However, notions the counseling developed has concepts almost the same, among other things counseling is an educational process with non-formal system, behavior change, and empowerment of the three  discussion with your study group friends. With discussion, you will get many benefits, for example you will have understanding of material that is difficult to compare if the material You learn it yourself, you are trained to express opinions and listen and get input from your friends. Besides that, You can test the extent of your understanding of the material you have learned.

Further ways, to enrich information and make it easier for you understand the material being studied, use sources of information or other learning resources, for example by reading other literature
or ask agricultural extension experts in your area.

Take advantage of the opportunity to ask remote sources of information before you take the final exam. Besides that, try hard
to always associate the theory you are learning with reality in the field

when you conduct counseling activities; surely you will be many gain new knowledge about the things you have been doing correctly and that you haven't done correctly, as a person agriculture instructor. Good value is certainly your expectation but that is more important do the learning process correctly to achieve value the good.
Happy learning, good luck.

Learning Activities 1

History of Agricultural Counseling the history of agricultural extension will provide knowledge about the efforts made by various parties in the activities agricultural development. Each country will have a history

the development of agricultural extension is not always the same. Certainly motivated by different agricultural development policies
in each country, which of course is associated with conditions

local. However, the history of agricultural extension of a country, with successes and failures, can be used as inspiration for
other countries in developing the agriculture sector especially in agricultural extension activities. From knowledge of history counseling at some other countries, you can retrieve information that is relevant to development of agricultural extension activities in your area.
The following is a description of the historical development of agricultural extension in some countries that have a fairly developed agricultural sector,
for example: the United States, the United Kingdom, Thailand and in Indonesia. Election these countries as an example in the description of the history of development
agricultural counseling is certainly based on special reasons. Example-

This example is intended to provide an illustration of agricultural extension has great benefits for the development of the agricultural sector and agricultural development in general. Almost no country is
have progress in the agricultural sector without the support of extension activities agriculture. With these examples you will know the factors
different specific factors that influence and encourage

the development of agricultural extension in each of these countries. In in addition, you will also find out about the organizer
or the person in charge of different extension activities in each

which develops in line with the desire to improve well-being more than 50% of the population has a livelihood for farming.
There are still many examples of other countries that have history agricultural extension that is well developed and produces results
which is significant in agricultural development, but not outlined in plengdut.com's posts. Each country has factors
specifics that affect the history of the development of education his farm. Please look for other library sources for
complete your knowledge of the history of the development of counseling agriculture in other countries. By knowing many examples, you are
will get a lot of inspiration, so you are more motivated in performing the role of an agricultural instructor. Can not avoid, that the problem of agricultural extension in your place work of course a lot, but with a lot of knowledge and
enough experience you have had, God willing, you will be able to

solve the problem properly.


1. United States

United States of America (US) is one of the sector countries the agriculture is growing rapidly. This is indicated by exports
agricultural products in the form of processed or raw products that are large enough,

although the US also imports certain agricultural products from other countries.

The progress of the agricultural sector cannot be separated from efforts through activities agricultural extension, which began in the 19th century, on the side
development of technology supporting the advanced agricultural sector.

The development of agricultural extension activities in the US is in line with the development of agricultural education and continued with the development

support and utilize each other.

Initially, the development of counseling was marked by donations the government to each state in the form of agricultural land
used as a laboratory of agricultural education activities Agricultural

The College was signed by the Land-Grant Act in 1862

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by President Abraham Lincoln. So, the development of counseling begins at in formal education. Subsequent developments, marked by
the establishment of the Agricultural Research Station ( Agricultural Experiment Station ) on in 1887 in collaboration with Agricultural College . This establishment
in line with the demands and needs to assess progress

agricultural problems that were increasingly developing at the time and activities research supports agricultural education activities.
Furthermore, in 1914 the Extension Service was established

nationally through the signing of the Smith-Lever Act . Purpose of establishment

At the time there were 2 Extension Services , they were: (1) to help spread

useful and practical information, and (2) encourage the application of information the. Both of these objectives must be carried out and achieved in a manner simultaneously, it cannot just reach the first goal and leave
second goal. It will be in vain if the information dissemination activity is not coupled with activities encouraging the application of information by the recipient information. In other words, the achievement of the second goal is indicated by
the recipient of the information wants to apply the information, is

indicator of the success of extension services .

In further developments, between education, research, and counseling is interrelated and donates and uses
information in order to answer agricultural problems and challenges

which is increasingly complex in the US. The results of research activities in the form of science new knowledge and technology are disseminated through educational activities
practical, and encouraging the application of new science and technology

This is done through extension activities. Surely

Research activities are based on current agricultural problems faced, so the results of his research can be applied to answer
the problem. Agricultural problems in the US, among others: the difficulty labor, land area, the need for new agricultural products at prices
relevant, credit utilization, socio-cultural changes, and needs
new science and technology.
Thus, the development of agricultural extension in the US began

with the need for agricultural education through formal educational institutions. Furthermore, agricultural education is complemented by formation
a research center in collaboration with agricultural education institutions

This is to produce new information that will be disseminated

through the education process. To encourage the application of new information

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The extension service was formed or extension services to the community nationally. The development of counseling is inseparable from the effort the US government through the support of agricultural legislation.

2. English

England is one of the countries in Europe that has

the history of agricultural extension development is quite long and important to be known. Factors affecting the history of development
Agricultural extension in the UK is somewhat different from in the US. In the 19th century, was the beginning of the development of agricultural extension activities in the UK,
marked by efforts to disseminate science and technology

through education outside formal school. Through this education, knowledge is informed and transferred from the source of knowledge to agricultural extension target. Science itself is produced through
research activities, with the hope that the results of the research can

used by people who need solutions to problems encountered.
In subsequent developments, the results of research are very support progress in agriculture, for example: agricultural production increased and achieved efficiency in agricultural change. The progress
certainly can not be separated from the role of the educational process outside of formal schools, that is

inform, transfer, and encourage the application of research results

mentioned to the target or farmers. However, at that moment began to be felt there is a need to find a method or method for delivering results
best research results. In general there is a need to hold

more systematic out of school education, which has an organization good, and supported by professionals who are capable
inform, transfer, and encourage the application of information.

Further developments are marked by the implementation of activities education and training by increasingly clear organizations, between
others: training and education institutions in the United Kingdom ( Royal Agricultural
College ) in 1843; courses provided by the University

Oxford and Edinburg University on non-permanent schedules unsustainable implementation. At the end of the 19th century,
agricultural extension activities carried out by an independent private sector
from government interference, for example, Oxford University, Cambridge which plays a role in providing professional level graduates.

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These professionals will do the activities

disseminating the results of agricultural research and education directly to the target. This activity is none other than agricultural counseling.
In addition to the formation of the organization, the historical development of counseling

agriculture in the UK also received government support in the form of issuance of laws related to financing. Before
there are laws that are issued and regulated at the initiative of the university. The law includes: a law granting authority
funding arrangements for training, courses and lectures at the district level ( county ), issued in 1880 and the funding law for
the development of agricultural education and training, published in the year

1904. With the issuance of laws relating to funding,

then the research-education-training activities are increasingly developing and goes well. In addition, universities or agricultural institutes
the organizer of research-education-training is supervised by

an agricultural affairs body later called the ministry agriculture.
Furthermore, the development of agricultural extension in England in the century

20 can be summarized into three periods, namely before the time of world war secondly, during world war two, and after world war two. On
the period leading up to the second world war, the agricultural sector in England only

able to meet one third of food needs, two-thirds

fulfilled by importing. At that time, university or institute agriculture research-education-training organizers have facilities adequate as a place for meeting and exchanging
thoughts between farmer groups and agricultural institutes, between members farmer groups, and between youth farmer groups. Agricultural area which is around the university or agricultural institute in general
develop better, because it is used for demonstration or practice

about the results of research or new information, and if there are problems in the area the, closer and faster to seek help solving. If
the nearest university or agricultural institute can't solve the problem, then the university collaborates with the university or institute
other agriculture research-education-training organizers. Here it looks

the role of the agricultural institute that has extension workers played a role in

the progress of the agricultural sector in the surrounding area, namely carrying out activities

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agricultural extension to the farming community in the region with facilities owned by the agricultural institute.
During the second world war, there was concern for the British government on the safety of imported food ingredients, so the government
implementing policies to double the food productivity of

in their own country. Here we see the role of government in activities

agricultural extension is increasingly apparent, the intensity of assistance and guidance extension workers to farming communities are being improved in almost all regions English. To facilitate its management, then in each district
an agricultural program executive committee was formed with members, among others farmers, technical officers and extension workers. This committee conducts activities starting from planning, compiling, and implementing the program. Accordingly indirectly, through committee membership, farmers get
valuable experience in developing farming, mutual exchange ideas, and together solve the problem. So,
during the second world war, the history of agricultural extension in Britain was marked with: the formation of organizations that enable communication
between farmers and between farmers and extension workers or technical officers

take place more effectively; the relationship between farmers and extension workers is getting stronger, extensionists receive recognition from farmers, in other words extension agents
needed by the farming community.

After the second world war, it was a time of counseling recognition in almost all regions of England. This is indicated by
the realization of a plan to unify all of the extension activities in one

container called the National Advisory Services or the Department of Education

National. Based on past experience and success,

the education, research and training activities are one

unity, which are complementary and interrelated which is crucial for

the success of extension activities specifically and improvement of farming generally. Various extension facilities were upgraded including facilities
for extension workers in carrying out their role. In those days, nothing
regions in the UK that do not have extension services,
as a result the number of agricultural institutes has increased. This includes improvements the number of extension workers, increasing the ability of extension workers, increase education, training and courses for the community. Therefore,
the British government's policy of dealing with war has accelerated

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the development of agricultural extension as well as the needs of the farming community of the agricultural extension activities.
The outline of the description above is: agricultural extension activities at Britain is growing rapidly due to the pressures of world war, so that there is community needs to be able to meet food needs in a manner
independent, so as not to depend on imported food. War

can hamper food imports. Through research activities carried out

efforts to improve and improve farming, and providing information on results research through educational activities, exercises, and courses through the system education outside formal school. The success of counseling is not only
determined by the quality of the results of the study, but also the professionalism of the instructor agriculture, and the will of the farming community to make improvements or
solving the problem at hand. Another determining factor is policy government that supports agricultural extension activities. Though when we recognize Britain as a developed, progressive industrial nation
it can not be separated from the development of the agricultural sector, in a manner specifically the role of agricultural extension.

3. Thailand

You certainly know, that at this time, the country of Thailand is known as the exporter of agricultural products that is quite calculated in the world. Export
in the form of raw agricultural products and processed products have dominated the market the world, both in terms of quantity, quality, and diversity of commodities
agriculture. Certainly interesting we learn why Thailand can rule agricultural products in the world, whereas Thailand only has less area more 514,000km 2 compared to our country Indonesia with an area
approximately 1,900,000 km 2 . At present, many farmers from Indonesia are studied in Thailand to study the development of advanced agriculture
in the country. The progress of the agricultural sector in Thailand is inseparable from the history of the development of agricultural extension as an effort
supporter of agricultural development.
Based on the Ministry of Agriculture (2001), until the end of the year
In the 1950s, agricultural development in Thailand was less developed

compared to other sectors that significantly contribute to income national. In fact, 70% of Thais live in rural areas with their eyes livelihood as a farmer. One factor that is considered less efficient
in agricultural development in Thailand is still fragmented

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extension policies issued by various agencies counseling at the time. Before 1977, Thailand had
agriculture department which is divided into several more departments small, for example the fisheries department, the livestock department, and the rice department. In the beginning, each of these departments
have an extension service by conducting an extension program.

The program is likely to overlap with the program counseling other offices, remembering each agency has
own policy and authority. Finally, the Thai government saw these problems and realize the potential of the community farmers in their area; Furthermore, gradually developing
agriculture through agricultural extension management activities.

In 1977, an agricultural extension department was formed

( Department of Agricultural Extension ) at the central level, with the department agricultural extension at the provincial level and at the district level
district. The unification of the extension services into one department based on program efficiency and costs, so that programs do not occur overlaps between services, and there is a unity of policy and sustainability public outreach program. After the formation of the department counseling, various programs and approaches to scale counseling
Nationally implemented, including the development of irrigation networks, as well

support for implementing a training and visiting system. Network development

Such irrigation has pushed the pace of agricultural development activities in rural areas, naturally requires an increase in extension workers agriculture both in terms of quantity and ability. Under construction agriculture is getting faster, the farming community needs help in
solve problems, need technical assistance, encouragement, information, consequently

the intensity of community meetings with extension workers is increasing. On

this is when agricultural counseling in Thailand began to receive recognition from


One extension approach is considered successful in Thailand

instructors come to the target to disseminate knowledge and technology, providing training or courses, encouraging targets to do and applying new knowledge, and encouraging people to
involved in various activities in the region, for example through farmer organizations,

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farm women, and farm youth. By following the organization, farmers will get guidance from the instructor, follow the discussion, and take it decisions based on mutual agreement. This system encourages
farmer community to be more active in farming activities, more aware and

responsible for efforts to improve farming, which is on can finally improve his welfare.
From the description above, the history of the development of agricultural extension in

Thailand is marked by the government's efforts to improve welfare the people. This is not surprising, considering agriculture
is the backbone of the economy in Thailand, because almost 70%

the people make a living from farming. The agricultural sector provides contribution to national income. Management of extension programs sustainable and nationally integrated agriculture, already
guarantee the success of agricultural extension activities, ultimately guarantee the success of agricultural development in Thailand. Success agricultural development is influenced by the organizing organization coordinated agricultural extension and extension programs
sustainable. In other words, progress in agriculture

in line with efforts to improve the quality of farmers, namely through activities agricultural counseling that is applied with various approaches or

Based on the examples of the three countries above, you can conclude

that the history of agricultural extension development has experienced ups and downs with various challenges. Starting from the goal of meeting needs
food, increase agricultural production, and increase income

farmers, coupled with efforts to encourage farmers to play a more active role in his farming activities. To achieve these objectives is needed:
information from the results of the development of science and technology, methods best in conveying the knowledge that is supported with
education and training, and efforts to encourage farmers to apply information on the basis of one's own awareness. Thus, history
the development of agricultural extension can not work alone, but in line

the training. Counseling-research-training is a mutually triune

related and the activities of the three will influence each other, give each other and receive information. The implementation of agricultural extension is
one of the efforts in ensuring the success of agricultural development.

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What about Indonesia, a country which a few years ago was still often called an agrarian state , are there specific factors that are influence the development of agricultural extension in Indonesia? is
the development of agricultural extension in other countries was influential

or vice versa? What is the contribution of agricultural extension to agricultural development in Indonesia? When is agricultural counseling experienced a glorious period and won the trust of farmers,
what factors influence? You will find the answer in

the following description, but try to discuss the questions

with your study group before studying the following material. Your experience as a counselor has been with various changes Government policies and challenges are certainly interesting to discuss.


The history of agricultural extension in Indonesia has a dynamic long in line with changes in agricultural development policy on
due time. Starting from efforts to increase agricultural production, needs

new commodities, the need for new knowledge generated through research, and the need to deliver research results to the target through the education and training process, and more importantly
efforts to change the farmers themselves. You as an agricultural instructor of course

have known the development of counseling in Indonesia, at least at

when you start to become an agricultural extension officer in the Department of Agriculture. Even though you already know a lot, there is no harm in knowledge
The following you know, which might be presented with a viewpoint

somewhat different from your point of view.

To facilitate understanding of the history of development

agricultural counseling, the following description will be presented by group time… which influenced government policy at the time, namely time
before independence, independence period, the new order period, and the period after
reform or regional autonomy. The purpose of the grouping
shows that the development of agricultural extension is highly related with government policy at that time, which had an effect on
Policy                                                    development                                                   agriculture.

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1. Pre-Independence Period (1817-1945)

Agricultural development at this time did not yet know the term agricultural extension, although there are activities introducing knowledge
new, for example introducing new types of plants. According to the Department

Agriculture (1978), the establishment of the Botanical Gardens in Bogor on May 17, 1817 by

CGLReinwardt is considered as the beginning of agricultural development efforts in Indonesia. At that time many new types of plants were introduced, between another palm oil and 50 types of cassava. Starting from the need
the improvement of agricultural production by the invaders, in 1831 the system began

forced cultivation ( cultuurstelsel ) for indigo / tarum plants, coffee, sugar cane, and tobacco. Farmers are required to plant these crops. During the system
forced planting, Pangreh Praja is the only body that faces

directly with the people. Pangreh Praja was the local ruler of the time

Dutch colonization to deal with its colonies. Effort improve agriculture based more on orders or coercion people to plant crops that have been determined.
Efforts to improve the type and amount of crop production realized by establishing a Commercial Plant Garden ( cultuurtuin ) on in 1876, centers of inquiry (now research institutions) in
in 1880, the agricultural school ( Land-en Tuinbouw Cursus ) in 1877

(in 1884 it was closed and opened again in 1903). At that time it was produced by agricultural power but not given authority, Pangreh Praja still have the authority to give direct orders to farmers. Farmers
carry out orders out of fear, but only as long as there are

control, consequently the way commands do not give good results in efforts to improve people's agriculture. Thus, the forced cultivation system only trying to increase agricultural production for the benefit
ruler, not improve the welfare of the farming community at that time.

Until the beginning of the 19th century, efforts to improve agricultural production remained done with a forced planting system. Pangreh Praja with his power
is the only body that directly affects the people.

That is, efforts to improve agriculture are still based on orders or
coercion so that farmers do agricultural activities, not in an effort grow awareness of the people doing agricultural improvement. When
the dissemination of knowledge through the process of agricultural education to farmers are not yet considered important. Thus, even though there are energy-
agricultural extension staff graduates from agricultural schools, but cannot

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play a good role. This is because the authorities at that time assumed that farmers can only be influenced by Pangreh Praja through pressure or coercion. After walking for almost three quarters of a century (1817-1900), the government at that time realized the forced cultivation system was not give results as expected. Then, changes are made
administrative in more decentralized agricultural management, i.e.

with the formation of the Department of Agriculture which began functioning in 1

January 1905 with the aim of advancing smallholder agriculture. First of all

The Department of Agriculture is located in the Botanical Gardens in Bogor.

At the beginning of its formation, the Department of Agriculture was functioning among others, promoting community agriculture, has 4 institutions, namely: Gardens Kingdom and Laboratory; Rice and Palawija Research Institute; School
Agriculture; and Annual Plant Experimental Gardens which are equipped with the courses and practical exercises. Function of promoting people's agriculture apparently not supported by special institutions that think of ways
how to convey all the knowledge obtained

to the farmers. This situation is related to their respective policies director of the Department of Agriculture who served on time. Prof. Dr. Melchior Treub, Director of the Department of Agriculture in 1905-1910,
view that farmers can only be influenced by the commander of the civil service, and farmer education is not important. Although at the time of Melchior
serving as director, for the first time has been appointed five agricultural advisers in 1908 (hereinafter regarded as
the starting point for the development of agricultural extension). However, agricultural advisor not given authority to supervise and inspect farmers in a way

In 1910-1918, the director of the Department of Agriculture was Dr. NJLovink who has a view somewhat shifted from view predecessor director. Lovink holds that agriculture education
is one useful way to advance and

improve agriculture. So, in 1911 the Office was formed

Agricultural Counseling ( Landbouw Voorlichtings Dienst / LVD) and in
1913 established the High School of Agriculture ( Middelbare Landbouw) School / MLS). Lovink's leadership shows awareness

of the importance of institutions that think about how to deliver

knowledge, namely through the process of agricultural education to the people.

The Agricultural Extension Service has a role in the process of agricultural education

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to the people, who are supported by agricultural workers who have graduated from

SPMA. Nevertheless, Pangreh Praja still has deep authority dealing directly with the people.
In 1918-1922 the Ministry of Agriculture was headed by Sibinga

Mulder, conduct an inventory and evaluation of the performance of the Department

Agriculture after 13 years of existence. One important policy is in carrying out agricultural education activities, the Office Agricultural Counseling needs to do coordination and sustainability
with sources or information providers. Then, the Great Hall was formed

Agricultural Research ( het Algemeene Proefstation voor den Landbouw / APL)

which is a union of several existing research centers. More

far, he also reorganized in the field of agricultural education as well

stressed the importance of the head of the agriculture area making work guidelines for the benefit of the local area, so there is an opportunity
respective regional development. Thus, in future

Mulder leadership, there seems to be a growing interest in the system agricultural extension is to build relationships between parties
parties involved in agricultural extension activities, for example with APL

as a source of new knowledge.

After almost a century, efforts to improve people's agriculture through Pangreh Praja's influence or order to the farmers is considered ineffective. Meanwhile, the Agricultural Extension Service was formed in 1911 and have tried to be able to deal directly with farmers on the basis of
education and volunteerism turned out to provide more tangible results

well. So in 1921 the Agricultural Extension Service worked independently of Pangreh Praja. The method implemented by the Agricultural Extension Service in improving smallholder agriculture is to encourage farmers
make improvements to agriculture with full responsibility based awareness or realization from within the farmer. To grow
farmers awareness, farmers are given the opportunity to witness themselves

concrete evidence from experiments and pilots that have been carried out by the Department

Agricultural Counseling. So, the activities of the Agricultural Extension Service on

That period began to lead to the improvement of individual farmers, to grow farmers' awareness, and not force farmers. Agricultural Extension Service

and its activities continued to grow until the arrival of the Japanese army in

in 1942, which apparently also implemented a forced cultivation system and ended

when                   independence                        Indonesia                       year                        1945.

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2. Independence Period (1945-1966)

After the proclamation of independence, one of the important efforts in agricultural development is with a plan to establish a center
education for rural communities in each district. In 1948

the plan was determined to be the Village Community Education Center

(BPMD). These provisions are included in the Prosperity Plan

Indonesia or the Kasimo Plan ( Kasimo Plan ), which is a plan

3-year agricultural production (1948-1950). But the plan

cannot be carried out completely due to Dutch military aggression on in 1948 and 1949.
After the re-recognition of Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949,

the government restarted more agricultural development efforts systematic, by implementing the Special Welfare Plan
is a combination of the Kasimo Plan and the Wisaksono Plan.

At this time, the approach and method of extension is still the same as that done before independence, even though agricultural problems are increasingly complex. Therefore, in 1958 intensification was carried out
rice production, and farmers who implement these activities will get

credit assistance in the form of seeds and fertilizer and money. In

the course of this activity was not successful, because of the credit system

which has been implemented has made it possible for a diversion, the price of rice low impact on credit returns, as well as lack
appropriate support staff.

In 1959-1968, based on failures

previously the agricultural extension approach had shifted.

Agricultural outreach began to apply the fast-moving, dynamic approach, and precisely, no longer the origin of the kelonon; how to use
the group approach, not just the individual approach, replaces

the oil drip system with water spills , so that everyone gets it

splashes of water or everyone involved in the activity. However, shifting the agricultural extension approach does not provide much
improvement for agricultural development. One reason is

the implementation of the government system at that time which was guided, all
the activity boils down to one particular leadership command . Application

The command system approach causes farmers to stay away

extension agent, because extension activities are considered more as an order.

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Although it has been independent since 1945 which means it has been free from pressure, agricultural extension activities in Indonesia until 1965
not yet giving better results to agricultural development.

This is due to the command system that is still carried out in activities

agricultural development, not on the basis of volunteerism of farmers involved in the activity. For example, orders for the application of new technology to
farmers, without farmers can choose or reject; so does formation farmer groups that are not based on the needs of farmers. At that time, agricultural extension methods have shifted from principles
originally that should have been based on efforts to increase farmer awareness make improvements to agricultural activities.

3. The New Order Period (1966-1998)

At the beginning of the New Order government in 1966, an idea emerged return the agricultural extension system to the original principles, intermediate others are voluntary and democratic. Ministry of Agriculture and related parties realize this idea by building an extension organization
agriculture that grows and is rooted at the village level, and is progressing approaches and ways of agricultural extension. Development success
agriculture in the new order cannot be separated from the success of the trial activities

Complete Five Panca Farmi in Karawang, West Java in 1963-1964.

The activity was carried out by lecturers and final-year students of the Institute

Bogor Agriculture cooperates with local farmers on an area of 104 hectares Ha. The activity is a mass demonstration of the Self-Sufficiency movement Foodstuff (SSBM) significantly increases rice production by two
fold and continue to expand at 11,000 Ha, and the next 150,000 Ha. The approach taken is that every two students handle one
a 50 hectare paddy field area and lived for six months together farm families to guide farmers to implement Five Farms
the. This approach can be considered as an extension activity agriculture.
In the end, the "Five Farms" became national policies

Bulk Guidance system (BIMAS), which is a package of inputs ( input ) that
consists of: providing credit (by BRI), agricultural extension services
intensive (by PPL from the Department of Agriculture), inexpensive production facilities and easily obtained by farmers (managed by dealers, kiosks, and KUD), as well
processing and marketing of farm products (by KUD, farmer groups,

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or private individuals). The BIMAS system is based on effort coaching farmers by Field Agricultural Extension (PPL) with
farmer group approach, with the ultimate goal of farmers being able to stand on their own.

Agricultural extension agents from the Department of Agriculture receive assistance from extension agents voluntary farmers, for example, contact farmers. The contact
The farmer has received training with an individual approach

through Anjangsana activities, farm courses, individual demonstrations or plots , and correspondence. Thus, the extension approach is not just
done with a mass or group approach, but also an approach towards individuals, especially to local individuals who has an influence on the farming community.
The BIMAS system is widely supported by mass activities,

include: agricultural counseling through radio broadcasts, exhibitions, publishing, film performances and traditional arts (wayang, skits, slapsticks,
and others). The use of extension media is in line

with changes in the political system and society at the time, so that

Ministry of Agriculture through the Department of Agriculture and agricultural extension workers get the opportunity to adjust the pattern, method, or
the approach used in agricultural extension activities. On

early in 1969 arranged patterns of agricultural development by:

expanding the program to farm women and youth, developing

demplot, denfarm, demarea and demunit methods, rural broadcasts, materials printouts and audio-visual material, and are supported by recruiting employees new, procurement of work and transport equipment, additions and repairs
Agricultural Counseling Center, and establishment of Agricultural Information Center.

The activity shows that agricultural extension is increasingly develop and get attention from both the government and gets
acceptance from the farming community. Improvement and development the extension approach is the basis for program implementation
the first five-year development that began in 1969 by 1974.
In its development, extension services in the form of education for farm families intended to further increase participation
Public. The formation of farmer groups continues on the basis of the needs of farmers, and determine the daily contact of farmers
direct builders of farmers and drivers of change in development agriculture in his village. Farmer contact cooperation with farmer groups

Page 20

is a learning mechanism in order to support

agricultural development. Furthermore, the mechanism of cooperation expanded at the national level. Formation of farmer contacts in activities agricultural extension, is one form of approach with
utilize the potential of local human resources, as well as to awaken farmer community participation in agricultural development.
Improvements were also made to the institutional counseling, both quantity and quality. For example: construction of an Agricultural School
Construction, Agricultural Employee Training Centers, Agricultural Information Centers, Agricultural Counseling Centers, Seed Centers, and Plant Protection Centers.
Until the end of PELITA V in 1994, it was built and

perfected a total of 1,300 BPP. BPP is a place institution

shelter PPL at the district level. With more and more BPP means

the closer the farmer is between the extension agent, the more intensive the extension agent in providing guidance to farmers and helping with resolution
farmer problem. In 1986, the functional position of agriculture instructor received recognition by issuing a Ministerial Decree
State Apparatus Utilization Number 73 / Menpan / 1985.

The SK is expected to be able to motivate extension workers to do it his role in quality, the subsequent success of doing the role
This will support the development of more agricultural extension services

well. Thus perfecting agricultural extension in the form

improvement in the quality and quantity of extension workers, institutions, as well extension programs and approaches, in addition to that there is policy support government.
In 1984, the Indonesian government received an award from the United Nations for its success in self-sufficiency in rice . This success is
achievements of the BIMAS program that seeks to double production rice. At that time, rice self-sufficiency was a national goal, thus
To achieve these objectives, the extension approach is taken centralistic ( top down ) with agricultural development programs uniform. However, the reality in the field shows that success
an increase in rice production that is not accompanied by an increase
welfare of farmers due to an increase in the price of agricultural production facilities and other ingredients, have caused some misperceptions in part
the community at that time, namely identifying extension activities as efforts to increase rice production alone, and not aimed at increasing

Page 21

well-being. Another fact is the achievement of national rice self-sufficiency making farmers human beings who depend on programs, activities,
or party advice at the top level. Independence and independence of farmers increasingly faded due to the approach of agricultural development that is the centralistic. This is not in line with the aims of counseling
original agriculture that seeks to grow and improve

the independence of the farming community.

In 1986-1991 there had been a change in organization

instructor, the role of the instructor has changed from being polyvalent to being

monovalent . The change to monovalent is in line with

the need for specifications in the profession, in the hope of monovalent extension agents can be more intensive in conducting extension activities in the sub-sector
certain. Agricultural extension workers who were originally under the Department of Food Agriculture

subsequently became part of the Department of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry, Office

Fisheries and Plantation Service according to their monovalent assignment. In implementation, extension activities cannot be carried out intensively
given the extension of geographic extension that increased for one person

Monovalent extension, farmers who are not familiar with the extension system monovalent, and need a variety of innovations by extension agents according to diversity the region. Plus, at that time many project activities began
the government is charged to the instructor, so the instructor is lacking

can apply the concept of extension as a non-formal education process

purely. Coordination between subsectors is not always smooth, it even happens sub-sectored compartmentalization. Changes in the counseling work system agriculture has influenced the existence of extension agents and of course also affect the development of agricultural extension due to acceptance
the community began to diminish towards extension activities.

Issuance of Joint Decree (SKB) of the Minister of Home Affairs and

Minister of Agriculture, namely SKB number 54 of 1996 and number

301 / Kpts / LP.120 / 4/1996 concerning Guidance for Counseling

Agriculture , giving the extension agents hope. Extension agents have discretion in playing an integrated role between subsectors and can find teak
himself back. However, the application of the SKB was not as expected

unclear guidelines regarding work relations between supporting institutions

agricultural development. SKB Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Agriculture who

Page 22

expected to be able to expedite the implementation of agricultural extension and further support the development of agricultural extension, as it turns out not going according to plan. Thus, agricultural extension
had experienced the heyday in the early and mid-order

new, but at the end of the new order agricultural extension is getting worse

as a result of a centralized approach to education that is no longer compatible community conditions and institutional changes in extension.

4. The Period After the Reformation or Regional Autonomy (1998-present)

The reforms marked the end of the new order government in the year

1998, which has changed the atmosphere of autocratic and centralistic democratic, which in practice expects freedom within
think, talk and act responsibly. During the Order new, people are used to an atmosphere of uniformity
centered. The policy is in accordance with the current condition of the community need a lot of help and guidance as well as government goals in
national stability. After various forms of development carried out

of course it has influenced the condition of an increasingly independent society able to make choices. Thus, the condition of the community
requires an environment that recognizes local capabilities or potential with all diversity, and no longer uniform. Various efforts
done to accommodate the demands of an increasing community developing, especially supporting the development of suitable agriculture the desires and abilities of the local community.
Reform also affects agricultural extension in

Indonesia, both individual counselors with extension services, activities counseling, government policy, and the peasant community. False
one of them is the issuance of Law Number 22 Year 1999

about Regional Autonomy . With this law, the regional government has the authority to regulate and manage quality improvement
human resources in accordance with the needs and abilities of the region

(especially the people). The implementation of the law has been
change government policies regarding agricultural development including policies in agricultural extension, including the transfer of responsibilities
regional government. The situation has an impact on change agricultural extension institutions which are the responsibility

Page 23

local government, including policies and extension programs which was originally a national uniformity , now it changes
local specific . In addition, the farming community is no longer required to follow government programs, farmers may decide their own commodities
that will be attempted. Accordingly, after the reform period and

the application of regional autonomy, more agricultural development activities carried out on the basis of their respective regional initiatives. This condition need HR with increasingly high quality.
In addition to demands for reform and regional autonomy, developments

agricultural extension at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century was influenced by increasingly qualified farmers, global market demands, the fact that
the role of the agricultural sector is no longer the mainstay, facilities and business infrastructure

which is getting better, the progress in agriculture is uneven in all regions, and local diversity (Slamet, 2001b). Therefore, agricultural extension is expected to apply the appropriate approach
with the current condition of society by taking into account the diversity of regions

(local specific), local needs and potential. These factors

will need agricultural extension workers with high abilities and

diverse. Agricultural extension workers must be able to provide various programs counseling and improving the quality of agricultural extension workers themselves. If not thus, the instructor will not be able to be a farmer companion,
eventually farmers will be further away from agricultural extension workers. With

In other words, the development of agricultural extension can not be separated from efforts internal improvement of the instructor both the ability of the instructor and the institution and its network, in addition to external factors which are very dominant influential.
The history of agricultural extension in Indonesia experiences ups and downs. Starting with the appointment of 5 agricultural advisors in 1908 who did not
has authority to supervise farmers, then develops

and reached its heyday in 1984. At that time self-sufficiency was achieved food with the uniformity approach of the "five farming" program and
the extensionist gets recognition from farmers, then the implementation of regional autonomy

pay attention to regional diversity so that it requires a program agricultural extension is specific to the local area and demands capability higher agricultural extension workers. Agricultural counseling is facing
many challenges, for example those that are internal counseling organizations, central and regional government policies that are sometimes not aligned
with counseling activities, as well as the commitment and abilities of individuals

Page 24

extension agent. Various methods, approaches and extension programs are carried out with all the improvements in order to achieve the goals of counseling

Success in facing challenges will re-establish position

and the contribution of counseling in agricultural development. A stability

the state is determined, among others, by the availability of food for its population, means the agricultural sector still plays an important role. Farmers as
front-line actors in the agricultural sector need continuous innovation

adopted through outreach activities, to be able to play a role and want make improvements in agricultural development. Therefore, agricultural extension is a component that must be present in
agricultural development of a country. Given the potential of the agricultural sector in

Indonesia with human resources of farmers more than 50% of the total its inhabitants, will agricultural extension in Indonesia experience progress or setback? What is the appropriate extension approach
with the changes that occur? What is the best effort in

restore the function of agricultural extension that should be? Please you discuss with your study group friends.


After you study the description of the history of development agricultural extension above, try testing your level of understanding by answering the following exercise questions. Try to answer yourself first, if you are still having trouble try to understand again the material above; only then will you discuss your answer with study group friends. You must be active in the discussion to be truly correctly understand the material you are learning.
1) Explain the factors that influence the development of counseling

agriculture in the United States, United Kingdom, and Thailand. Are there any similarities or the difference in the three countries?
2) How was the development of agricultural extension in Indonesia?

3) Explain the main differences in the development of agricultural extension in
Indonesia at the time of independence and the new order!
4) In Indonesia's current condition, mention the factors that are

influence                              development                       counseling                    agriculture!

Page 25

Instructions on Exercise Answers

1) Factors that influence the development of agricultural extension

in the United States, inter alia: (a) agricultural education needs, so a land-grant act was signed regarding land granting agriculture to colleges to meet educational needs
agriculture in a formal education environment; (b) information needs agriculture, so the Agricultural Experiment Station was established study agricultural problems; (c) the need to deliver
information and application, then set up extension services or services

national counseling.

Factors underlying the development of agricultural extension in

Britain is distinguished in three periods, namely the period before the war, during war, and after world war two.
Factors that influence the development of agricultural extension in Thailand, among others: (a) 70% of the population is eyed livelihood as a farmer but the level of welfare is still not
well; (b) government awareness of agricultural potential,

then seeks to improve the efficiency of agricultural extension, among others, by uniting the extension service into one
the agricultural extension department; (c) application of the training system and visit (LAKU) as an extension approach that is considered
managed to encourage the community in agricultural development activities. Similarities in the development of agricultural extension in the three countries That is the development of agricultural extension based on
the need to meet food needs, increase production agriculture, and increase farmers' incomes coupled with
efforts to encourage farmers to play a more active role in activities his business. The difference: in Thailand, agricultural counseling developed with government interference through the department counseling which is an integration of the extension services; meanwhile in Britain and the US, agricultural extension is developing formal educational institutions, which have land for education agriculture, counseling facilities, and supporting professionals.
2) The development of agricultural extension in Indonesia begins with: (a)
the invaders need to introduce new knowledge for example

various types of new plants; (b) the need for invaders to

Page 26

increasing the number and types of agricultural production; and (c) needs improve people's agriculture. To achieve these needs,
then various attempts were made by the government (at that time

Dutch occupation), among others: establishing a Botanical Garden in Bogor and

Kebun Perkebunan, established an investigation center, a school agriculture, and the appointment of five agricultural advisers in the year
1908 (hereinafter considered as the beginning of counseling agriculture). However, fulfilling the needs above is mostly done with a coercive approach using the Pangreh Praja's power.
So, efforts to improve smallholder agriculture are not based on growth of people's awareness.
3) The main differences in the development of agricultural extension in Indonesia at

the independence period and the new order period are: at the time of independence, the development of agricultural extension was marked by the establishment of Balai Village Community Education (BPMD) which is the center of education
for the community, then intensification activities are developed

rice production, as well as a business extension approach move everyone. However, these efforts are lacking
succeeded in increasing the welfare of the farming community because of the system centralized leadership and one command, consequently involvement
farmers in agricultural development have not changed like the times

colonialism, that is not the awareness and volunteerism of the community. During the New Order, agricultural counseling began to gain recognition, marked by various successes including: the application of panca
complete farming with the role of intensive extension workers, and

the success of food self-sufficiency in 1984. At that time the approach applied is "centralized" which is uniform. While
that, in its development, the farming community has experienced developments and local potential begin to grow, so the approach centralized no longer possible. In addition, during the new order, agricultural extension organizations have experienced some changes influence the implementation of extension activities. Therefore, agricultural extension at the beginning of the new order period recognition from the community, but at the end of the new order
that trust actually diminished.
the current condition of Indonesia,

influencing factors

the development of agricultural extension is: the quality of the farming community,

Page 27

diversity of local potentials, quality of extension workers and their organizations, the consequences of the Regional Autonomy Law, global market needs,
facilities and facilities for farming, according to the needs and conditions

Public. Factors that need to be considered are now

the farming community has developed so it must be given an opportunity think, talk and act responsibly. On the other hand,
the application of regional autonomy has been implemented, namely free farmers planting commodities according to their needs, interests and expertise. As consequently, the instructor adapts to these conditions and
must have a higher ability.


The history of agricultural extension provides knowledge about background in agricultural extension activities
support the success of agricultural development. Almost every country has a history and development of agricultural extension respectively respectively, with differences in the underlying factors.
The United States has a history of counseling that began
agricultural education needs, the need to convey information
and encourage the application of information through extension services activities. In England, the development of counseling is initiated by necessity
spread science and technology with more methods
systematic, and increasingly received recognition from the community because war pressure that requires food production from within
country. In Thailand, the development of agricultural extension began the establishment of a central agricultural extension department
which was previously sectoral. Implementation of training systems and visits further increase community acceptance of
agricultural extension activities in Thailand.
The development of agricultural extension in Indonesia can grouped in the period before independence (1817-1941),
independence period (1945-1966), the new order period (1966-1998), and the period reform or regional autonomy (1998-present). Garden Development
Kingdom in Bogor in 1917 with the aim of introducing species
new plants, mark the beginning of agricultural development in Indonesia.
Ithnethpeeoppelreioadppbleifeodrewiinthdeapseynsdtemceofthfeorecfefdorctutoltiivmaptiroonvaenadgrpiacnugltruerhe power praja. During independence, the approach to repair

Page 28

smallholder agriculture has been changed from when the colonial era, but the system fixed command from one center. This does not foster awareness
Public. During the New Order era, agricultural extension activities began received recognition from the farming community in line with success national rice self-sufficiency. But the centralistic and top- approach
down is not in accordance with the development of Indonesian society which
more diversity and need recognition.
During the reformation or implementation of regional autonomy, the government regions have the authority to regulate and administer
Improving the quality of human resources according to the abilities and needs of the region. With the opportunity to develop regional potential, role
agricultural extension workers are increasingly needed to encourage the community farmers take advantage of opportunities. Extension agents must be able
identify the potential and needs of the local farming community and able to implement an appropriate extension approach. With
thus the ability, the quality of extension workers also need to be improved can deal with changes during the reform period and
regional autonomy.


Choose the best answer!

1) Agricultural extension in the UK is developed by ....
A. extension services
B. Ministry of Agriculture
C. university
D. Agricultural Research Institute

2) The Land Grant Act is an agreement on government contributions
US in the form of agricultural land that will be used as .... A. Agricultural extension
B. agricultural education
C. agricultural research
D. Agricultural university buildings

3) Agricultural extension activities use information, among others
in the form of the results of the development of science and technology which obtained through activities ....
A. research institute
B. extension services

Page 29

C. identification of agricultural problems
D. agricultural school

4) The beginning of the development of agricultural extension in Thailand began improved is when efficiency is done in development
agriculture, among others, by way of ....
A. Uniting agricultural policies and programs with a training system and visits (LAKU)
B. Unifying farmer groups, farmer women, and farmer youth into one farmer organization
C. developing agricultural extension services at each department of agriculture subsector
D. bringing together agricultural extension services under one agricultural extension department

5) The starting point of agricultural development efforts in Indonesia is marked by ....
A. Establishment of the Botanical Gardens in Bogor in 1817
B. the establishment of the School of Agriculture in 1877
C. the formation of the Department of Agriculture in 1905
D. appointment of five agricultural advisers in 1908

6) During independence (1945-1966) the results of extension activities agriculture does not show a satisfactory increase, this
as a result of ....
A. re-application of the forced cultivation system
B. the command system approach of one command
C. Farmers' awareness to improve themselves is still low
D. water spill approach in extension activities

7) Agricultural extension activities show positive results at the beginning of the period the new order. The counseling approach taken at that time was ....
A. Building an agricultural extension organization at the village level
B. expanded the trial area from 105 Ha to 11,000 ha
C. intensive student guidance to farm families about
"Five Complete Farming"
D. application of activities that are individual, especially to influential parties

8) One of the objectives of agricultural extension is the creation of a learning process

A. farmer group
B. farmer contact
C. Field Agricultural Education
D. bulk guidance

9) The purpose of the change in organizing counseling from polyvalents
being monovalent , among others are ....
A. intensify the subsector extension activities
B. increasing the identity of agricultural extension workers
C. accommodate the diversity of regions and innovator extension
D. expanding the area that gets extension activities

10) The issuance of Law Number 22 Year 1999 concerning Autonomy
Regions will have consequences in the field of counseling. The main thing the counselor must do is ....
A. improve the quality of agricultural extension workers
B. adding types of activities and types of education
C. identifying regional diversity
D. improve cooperation networks

Match your answers with the Answer Keys for Formative Test 1 which is there is at the end of this post plengdut.com. Count it
the right answer. Then, use the following formula for know the level of mastery
Your Learning Activity material 1.

Mastery level =

Number of Correct Answers

Number of Questions


Meaning of mastery level: 90 - 100% = very good
80-89% = good
70 - 79% = enough
<70% = less

If you reach a mastery level of 80% or more, you can continue with Learning Activities 2. Good! If it's still below 80%,
You should repeat Learning Activity 1 material, especially the part that is

not yet                                                                                                                             overpowered.

Learning Activities 2

Definition of Agricultural Counseling

ari historical description of the development of agricultural extension in Indonesia, US, UK and Thailand, you can draw that outline
counseling is motivated by the need to solve problems

faced by farmers, efforts to increase agricultural production, and improve farming. Thus, counseling begins with
the process of conveying information to the target is then carried out the process of encouraging targets to want to apply the information in accordance with the problem. With regard to conditions
farmers, the instructor tries to package information. Various ways,

methods and approaches are used by extension workers so that information can be received farmers in accordance with their abilities. The instructor provides guidance and
service to farmers so that they are willing and able to apply knowledge

Such knowledge is based on self-awareness and ability take the best decision on his farm. In other words, agricultural extension aims to foster awareness of farmers
behavior change in order to have knowledge, abilities, and will

better, so they can make decisions for their farming so it affects the welfare of his life better.
After understanding the history of agricultural extension development above, it appears that the outreach activities are supported by
the instructor organization components and networks that are utilized, program development, media used, approaches and methods
applied. At the end of the extension activity an effort is always made know the level of change in goals. Extension activities involve
components include: farmers and extension workers, activities or processes interaction between farmers and extension workers, material or information delivered, and something that will be achieved or the problem at hand farmer to be settled. Based on the identification results, what
actually what is meant by agricultural extension? is

must these components always be present in the extension activities? Try discussing it first with your study partner. Before

has a basic why in counseling there need to be components the.


Lately, we often hear people use the term counseling in almost all fields, not only in agriculture. Society has a variety of understanding and understanding of
the term "extension". This depends on which field the community is in

take part. In addition, the difference in understanding of education can occur because of people's lack of understanding of the principles and matters
that must be implemented in counseling, consequently the community

use and provide different responses and ratings.

The further impact of this lack of understanding is feared there will be inappropriate policies or extension activities
on agricultural extension issues in particular and development agriculture in general. Therefore, before studying the material plengdut.com's posts further, you should first understand understanding "extension", so you have the same understanding to the term "extension". You should first learn about "term-
the term 'extension used by various parties. The term exists

likely to have the same goal. Some terms that have understanding is almost the same as counseling is development (Malaysia), extension (English), voorlichting (Dutch), aufklarung and erziehung (Germany), forderung (Austria), vulgarisation (France), capasitacion (Spain).
In the UK, extension activities use the term university

extension or extension of the university . This is because of activities

counseling was born, developed and managed by the university. According to van den Ban and Hawkins (1999) James Stuart of Trinity College, at
Cambridge, England, is considered the first counseling father, because

his dedication in the field of agricultural extension. In 1867-1868 James

Stuart gave the gathering for the first time

women and male workers' associations in Northern England. In 1871

Stuart proposed to the University of Cambridge that counseling be made courses. Subsequently in 1873 the University of Cambridge

implement a counseling system, then followed by the University of London at in 1876 and Oxford University in 1878. By 1880

this activity has been an educational movement within universities which spread its wings off campus. Thus, counseling
is an educational activity outside of formal education on campus, which is intended for adults.
Meanwhile, as described in Learning Activity 1 before,

that agricultural counseling in America also developed from universities whose teaching objectives are no longer limited to the campus environment but extended to all parties who live in any environment.
In the early 20th century, the term agricultural extension began to be used

general. Understanding the term extension is a form

"Adult education" puts teachers on staff

university. The educational activities are carried out by the agricultural academy for years by employing regional extension workers in each
States. The next development, due to the decrease in the number of farmers, the instructor provides services to all citizens about
information available from various sources at the university. With thus, counseling in America constitutes adult education
started in agriculture ( agricultural extension ) then developed in other fields ( extension education ).
In the Netherlands the term voorlichting is used to mean giving lighting to help someone find their way. This term too
applied to the countries that became the Dutch colony at that time, including Indonesia. Malaysia uses the term developments that
is an influence from English. The term aufklarung in language German means enlightenment used in the health field, meanwhile erziehung is used in agriculture which has an understanding education , which emphasizes the process of teaching someone so can solve the problem yourself. This understanding is the same as the notion of "education" used in America.
Some other terms that have almost the same meaning are

forderung (Austria) which means to lead someone in a direction

is desirable. This understanding is the same as that used in Korea viz rural guidance. The term vulgarisation (French) emphasizes
the importance of simplifying messages for lay people. Capasitacion

(Spain) shows a desire to improve abilities

humans can be interpreted by training. These terms

to the target so that from not knowing to knowing, as well as efforts improve the ability of the community through a training process or study.
Thus, the term "extension" implies activities

education towards targets, namely farmers who are generally people adult, which is done outside formal education or called education non-formal, so the target has more ability and can
take a decision to achieve his wishes. In counseling there

material or information conveyed to farmers by approach,

certain method or method so that it is suitable with the farmers' condition. However, in its development in several countries that use the term
agricultural extension , comes the understanding of extension that has been lost

"the meaning of education". They provide understanding that counseling is an activity to guarantee an increase in agricultural production, which is is the main objective of agricultural development policy. These goals achieved through stimulating farmers to utilize technology
modern and scientific production developed through research.

In fact, the main principle of counseling is "education", therefore educational principles that prioritize development processes on
self target must be applied as well as be sustainable, there is a lead process back, and not just convey ( transfer ) technology only
for momentary needs.


Based on the above terms, van den Ban and Hawkins (1999) conclude that there is a common perception of understanding of the term "extension", that is, as a process by which someone is involved communicating information consciously with the aim of helping
each other giving opinions so they can make decisions right. Thus, counseling activities start at
target interests namely farmers. Counseling as a helping process farmers in making decisions from various alternative solutions
problems through learning or reciprocal processes between instructors and target.
Furthermore, Wiriaatmadja (1973) gave the meaning of counseling

farm family in the countryside. They learn while doing to be want, know, and can solve their own problems
deal with it well, profitably, and satisfactorily. So counseling agriculture is a form of education that means, materials, and
the target is adjusted to the circumstances, needs, and interests, in terms of goals, time and place. Counseling is often called a
form of development education because of its selective nature, in a sense choose materials and methods of education directly and supportably implementation of the desired development.
According to Soemodiwirjo in the Department of Agriculture (2001) counseling agriculture is an effort to advance the economy and circumstances
social society, and it must be noted that agricultural extension activities

is an educational activity. Alwi in the Ministry of Agriculture (2001)

states that agricultural extension is an attempt to give teaching, education, and guidance to farmers to improve
their intelligence generally, engineering knowledge in particular, generate cooperation and actively help yourself so you can produce enough to fulfill a decent or prosperous life.
Meanwhile, Padmanegara in the Department of Agriculture (1978)

interpret agricultural extension as an education system outside of school

( non-formal ) for farmers and their families (farmer mothers, young farmers)

they are able, able, and self-sufficient to improve / improve his own welfare and society. So, the final destination or goal
the long term of extension activities is the achievement of welfare extension target, namely farmers.
The following are some definitions of agricultural extension according to experts agricultural extension from abroad quoted from the Department
Agriculture (2001). Extension activities are an outside education system a school where adults and young people learn while practicing
(Kelsey, 1962). Extension education is an applied science

contain content or material derived from research results, experiences in

the field that accumulates, and the principles synthesized from the sciences behavior ( behavioral sciences ) by using a technology that
helpful. This becomes a philosophy, principles, material, and methods with a focus on non-school education problems for adults and youth (Leagans, 1961). Core agricultural extension
on adult education aimed at instructing and

influence farmers to adopt the best things in

farming. This education will change the mentality of farmers to be able bringing together new ideas and methods and taking initiative in improve knowledge and practices in farming (Cruz,
1959). So, the three experts emphasize that education agriculture as a non-formal education process, especially in deal with farmers' problems.
A more detailed understanding is conveyed by Laidlaw in

Ministry of Agriculture (2001), that agricultural extension is meaningful provide education to people who really do not have
direct access to educational institutions. If education is not provided

then they will still have no education, training or information needed to improve
his life. Counseling is the process of diffusion ie information is given by primary sources to the large number of people who will obtain benefit from it. Furthermore, counseling is an education system organized in order to help others so that person
can help yourself helping people to help themselves . Knowledge

as the content of counseling was obtained through research centers, laboratories and various educational institutions, libraries, documents country documents and reports. Through counseling activities,
then the knowledge or information is processed or packaged so that it is available for farmers to solve problems that are
faced with. The counseling process occurs in two directions and there is flow ongoing feedback between instructors and targets. This description
explain that counseling is not just conveying knowledge,

but the process continues until the target knows the knowledge and able to decide to want to use it according to the problem faced.
According to the Ministry of Agriculture (2001), agricultural extension is efforts to empower farmers and their families, agricultural communities and other agribusiness actors carried out mainly through activities
education (outside of school) in agriculture, so they are dynamic and

able to improve his life with his own strength

so as to realize a prosperous agribusiness community. As educational activities, agricultural extension is an effort to help they are in creating a conducive learning climate. Activity

The main aspects of agricultural extension include: (1) facilitating the learning process farmers and their families, agricultural communities and other agribusiness actors,
(2) provides recommendations and endeavors farmers access to sources information resources and resources that will assist them in
solve the problem at hand, (3) help create a business climate which is profitable, and (4) develops a farmer organization strong socio-economic organization. Thus, counseling
agriculture seeks to make the learning process so that farmers can: farm more

good, more profitable business, better organization, a better society, a better environment, and more life
prosperous. The meaning of counseling here has involved the element of agribusiness,

in accordance with the demands of the current conditions.

From some of the above meanings, there are many similarities in interpret agricultural extension, although there are some differences. Core extract some understanding of agricultural extension is as a
the educational process outside of school, through a learning experience process

learning experience with a continuous flow of feedback, that is

aims to increase the knowledge and abilities of farmers, until there is changes in the farmer that is able to farm better, farming
better, prosperous life sustainably. So, understanding education agriculture is a non-formal education process for adults viz farmers so that changes in farmer's behavior include knowledge, the ability and willingness of farmers to have better
welfare in a sustainable way.


When examined, the understanding of agricultural extension above

contains several main concepts, namely: the process of education with the system

Non-formal education for adults, the process of changing abilities

farmers, and the process of empowering farmers. So, counseling is not just the process of conveying information only. Mention of these concepts
in agricultural extension depends on the point of view used

the user in reviewing the meaning of counseling, for example, can use

point of view of the education process, point of view of the educational goals of people adult, change process perspective, or process perspective
increase the power of the target. What's important is that all of these concepts exist

and carried out in agricultural extension activities. The following description each of these concepts.

1. Counseling as an Educational Process

Education is a business or process of making a behavior change humans regularly from birth to death, through certain means
(e.g. learning) in the expected direction. (try to differentiate understanding education with the understanding of learning . Learning has a business sense active someone to change his own behavior. People who study
interact with the subject or material being studied). Someone those who get an education will experience a change in behavior based on the sciences and experiences that have received recognition from the community. These changes include changes about things known (knowledge) for example knowledge of types of varieties
rice, type and dosage of fertilizer; changes about things that can be done

(skills), for example skills using a tractor, skills

think or plan intercropping; and changes about things that are

can be felt (attitude) for example having a new outlook, thinking

positive from negative, the desire to continue learning, and the willingness to improve themselves.

Agricultural counseling is done so that farmers have new abilities to solve the problem, it means that the instructor is trying
make changes to the target of farmers. Farmers who don't know to know, who is unable to become able, and from not wanting to be a farmer who wants to improve himself, and wants to take it decisions of various alternatives to solve that problem
he faces. Thus counseling is an educational activity for

farmers who are adapted to the conditions of farmers. Extension is a process change farmers' behavior for the better to be able to solve
the challenges they face and improve their quality of life. Target

education in agricultural extension is farmers, adults

who already have certain abilities with a number of experiences, so counseling is a special education for adults who
must match the characteristics of the adult. Counseling must

applying philosophy and principles of education especially education for adults, as well as understanding the characteristics of adults with
all                                      condition                              and                                their needs.

In order for the education process in counseling of farmers and the family is going well, the things to watch out for are: (1)
Everyday farmers have a busy life and activities in the framework of searching making a living, especially in the countryside; (2) farmers have thoughts, views, desires, and habits that are influenced by the rural environment (spiritual, material, and physical); (3) any change will affect livelihoods
and farmers' lives. So, in order to realize the educational process for farmers, then activities to progress the structure are needed
rural areas and to dynamize rural communities as a whole

(Padmanagara, 1979). In accordance with the circumstances, position, busyness, and the nature of the educational goals is the farmer and his family
a complete separate education system is needed based on

philosophy, principles, goals, approaches, methods, and certain techniques, as well organized by organizations with special personnel as well. System
education in accordance with these characteristics is called

"agricultural extension".

Extension activities are non-formal education processes if seen of the system applied. Programs or contents are tailored to
"needs" targets. and how it fits the "circumstances" of the target.

Agricultural counseling is called adult education when viewed from target students are farmers who are generally adults with everything its characteristics. Based on the place or environment there are education in the family or called in-formal education ; education in tiered schools or called formal education . Education which is
done outside of both, not in the family and not in school,

not tiered and according to needs or problems that are being

Faced with student targets, is called non-formal education . To be clearer your understanding of the formal and non-formal education system, Table
1.1 presents the difference between formal and non-formal education.

Table 1.1.
Difference between Formal Education and Non-Formal Education

1. Curriculum                      Baku, has been determined accordinglyFlexible, depending on needs
competence to be generated
2. Purpose                            Tiered changes are

target according to the problem to be resolved
Expected change

3         Relative time period



specific to the target group
certain, based on the target conditions
Relatively shorter, depends target needs
4. Material                           Relatively standard according to the cuDrreicpuelnudming  on needs and
which has been set

5. Place                                Generally in class,

the problem being faced target
As per material requirements and


agreement, can be in class, in roomy, or at the place of trial
6. Time                                The schedule is structured

Depending on target needs

so the implementation time certain, for example semester or
academic year

and agreement between participants and teacher

7. Characteristics                 Relatively homogeneous , good age

Relatively heterogeneous in terms of age,

and ability and experience, according to certain qualifications

social cultural background, education, adults with various experiences
8. Characteristics                 Have qualified requirements

Have the ability to match

formal (eg bachelor, master).

material needed by the target students (e.g. someone who experienced in the field certain)

9. More formal or standard methods; example:

More diverse depending

lecture, structured experience

the area of behavior to be changed, e.g. method demonstrations, field trips,
brainstorming , and others
10. Interaction                     Tends to be formal,

Tends to be less formal, commu-
Target with

more one-way communication dominant, vertical transmission of teacher to target students

two-way communication is more dominant,
lateral , reciprocal transmission
11. Legality of the results of the Target obtain a diploma

The target does not get a degree,

or certificate and degree

but choose ability
solve current problems that

Education for the future NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
Non-formal education for
ture, prepare solve problems
student target in order to be that is being faced, for
face problems in the future current needs, for
front, education for complete formal education in order
future needs student goals can play a role when
plunge into society

2. Counseling as an Effort to Change

We certainly believe that in this world nothing is eternal and does not exist which is static, all beings in the world undergo change. However, there are natural changes, which are generally slow, are lacking
need resources, but the results of these changes are not necessarily

as you wish and may be left behind by others. In addition, there are also some changes that are artificial or intentional, that is, mixed
human hands by using more resources, in order

change goes faster. Intentional change aims so

conditions occur in accordance with wants, needs, and changes

its environment, so as not to be left behind by changes in other fields that are around him. Change is a condition from the previous one
to be the desired state, from less to more, than to

a little to a lot, from not being able to being able, or from the behavior now becomes the desired behavior.
The question is, why should it change? Why change? For

can answer that question, try to pay attention to your surroundings. In the year of

1970s to 1980s Indonesia only had one station

television, but currently there are more than 10 national television stations. The rapid media development has driven the speed of information change,
diversity of types and volumes of information, ease of access to information, which is have an impact on the speed with which life changes to adjust
changes to that information (of course, the most appropriate information is chosen with existing norms). Someone who lacks access to information
by itself will not be able to keep up with changes in the surroundings, and the longer it will be excluded because it is not able to adjust or
compete with others. Likewise with farmers, it is always expected follow and have access to any changes in the vicinity
including being able to adjust to these changes to be able

play a role and compete in agriculture. In other words, change

farmers need to be done so that they can play a role in development dynamic especially agriculture which is very influenced by change surrounding science and technology. Thus, farmers
is expected to always have better behavior

in doing business so that he can improve his welfare sustainably.
Agricultural extension is an activity that seeks to improve

the ability of farmers with a certain approach, so that farmers are able take the right decision related to solving problems
faced. In fact, not every farmer is aware of or

feel the need to change including the need to add Science. If so, then agricultural extension plays a role foster awareness and a sense of need for farmers to change
and the addition of knowledge, fostering "farmer awareness" for change with better behavior so that you can race
independent with changes around. Grow awareness and needs

This is not coercive, but intrinsic to the farmer.

In other words, agricultural counseling seeks to make "changes"

the behavior of farmers, from those who know less to know more, from less able to become able, and from not wanting to being willing to do improvement of quality of life. Agricultural extension activities carried out by having goals, adapted to the conditions of farmers and regions
local, so that the desired changes can be achieved according to which

desired and sustainable. Agricultural counseling is nothing else is a change activity that is accelerated by deliberate and planned, towards the behavior of farmers to be better.
So that planned changes are achieved well, several factors

need to be considered in agricultural extension, namely the existence of activities planning, implementing according to plan, and evaluating activities for
know whether the achievement of results according to the plan and improvement efforts which must be done. In addition, in order to occur in a change activity
quickly, there needs to be a special force, called an "accelerating agent" or "agents of change" or "agents of reform". This needs the support of officers counseling that has knowledge, skills and abilities as well
appropriate attitude; and supported by institutions and their networks

and its facilities and infrastructure. Thus agricultural counseling is a planned change effort that uses an approach

certain, with the aim that farmers have the behavior, abilities and a better life in accordance with changing times and
its environment.

3. Counseling as Empowerment

At this time, maybe we hear the term empowerment more often

compared to the term "extension", for example empowering farming communities, empowering communities around the forest, empowering fishermen,
empowering people affected by the earthquake, and others. What exactly is the meaning said the empowerment? Empowerment comes from the word power ,
gets affixes ber become helpless, and got affixes pe and an

so that it becomes empowerment . Empowerment ( empowerment ) is interpreted as a process that encourages a person or group to have power
or the power to use his abilities in his life, deep

society, by reacting or acting on all problems important that it faces. Empowerment is an activity
given to the target until there is a change, namely from someone who

has no or less power to have power or ability or

ability. If so what is the difference between empowerment and counseling? Can counseling be called empowerment? In order to
answering these questions, you need to know first from counseling

and empowerment, then you need to know why the community

Should Farmers Be Empowered? Try discussing first with your study friends.
To find out the purpose of empowerment, then you begin to think

about the slogan "because he knows he will do something", meaning if someone has more power or ability or quality of self then
he will do something or participate in an activity for fulfill his wants or needs. For example a farmer, for meet his needs, then with the ability he has
will participate in agricultural activities or agricultural development

to meet these needs. With awareness and will

themselves to participate in agricultural development, someone will responsible and can enjoy the fruits of development. Development
agriculture is said to succeed only if all parties are involved including the perpetrators

agriculture in the main line, namely farmers. Farmers can enjoy yields agricultural development if farmers participate in development.

To be able to participate farmers must have more quality or power, in order to have power it is necessary to empower farmers. With
other words, so that farmers become more qualified and can participate in agricultural development, the community must be empowered through empowerment activities. The efforts that have been made in achieve empowerment goals, including through guidance, courses, training, or through other forms of non-formal education.
Agricultural counseling is carried out to increase capability or

the power of farmers in their efforts to obtain results that can fulfill his desires. This means counseling seeks
improve the ability of farmers to make the right decisions on

the right time and build his own future according to which he wants, with an understanding of change as well
problems in the environment. Agricultural counseling aims to change better farmer behavior which includes increasing knowledge,
ability or ability, and willingness to improve. So,

counseling aims to increase the power of farmers, so they are able to improve the quality of life and more prosperous sustainable. Thus, agricultural extension activities are empowerment activities, from farmers who have no power or lack
have the power to become empowered farmers so they can live more

prosper independently and sustainably.

Margono Slamet (2001a) said that community empowerment

is another expression of the purpose of counseling. Community empowered means people who are able , know , understand , understand , motivated , opportunity , see opportunity , can take advantage of opportunities, energy, able to work together, know various alternatives, able to take
decisions, dare to face risks, able to find and capture

information , and able to act according to the situation . Empowerment means the process of making people able to build themselves,
improve his own life, able to improve the quality of his life independently, do not depend on the "compassion" of the other party. Empowerment will produce a dynamic and progressive society
on an ongoing basis, because it is based on intrinsic motivation and

extrinsic at once. So counseling is an empowerment effort.

4. Counseling is not just an illumination process

Some people still give the same meaning between activities agricultural lighting and extension, so it often uses both
these terms interchangeably. According to Wiriaatmadja (1973), divide

an agricultural instructor, the term "enlightenment" means the continuing effort or transmission of a message or information (for example, information, explanations, regulations, facts, ideologies, beliefs and other knowledge)
to people or targets, so that they become aware or aware

there will be something. So, the lighting provider has no intention

which is further than that, for example, want to ensure the application of a advice; There is no follow-up activity whether the target applies information the new; no further action in the form of changes in target behavior. Meanwhile the target self who received the mandate did not happen much behavior change unless aware of something due to the lighting
the. The target is to accept what the giver has presented

lighting, apart from the problem of happy or unhappy with the mandate or that information. So, lighting is only a process of delivery information.
Meanwhile, agricultural extension has an effort or action further and wider than just lighting activities. Agricultural extension includes delivering information, encouraging and fostering motivation extrinsic and intrinsic targets in selecting and applying information through setting an example or demonstration, encouraging and
help the target implement new knowledge, and do

interaction and provide feedback to the target until the target experiencing a change in behavior. In other words, agricultural extension is an activity carried out by extension workers so that farmers have
new knowledge, able to do, until the target wants to improve

his quality of life with awareness not coercion. So, counseling agriculture is responsible until the target undergoes behavioral change, whereas information is merely conveying information no matter whether the target is changing behavior.
To be clear, between agricultural extension with lighting can be

distinguished on the basis of important factors including: objectives, nature of communication, conditions for officers' abilities, approach, and the nature of the message or material
that                                                                                                                         be delivered.

a. Purpose

The purpose of information is to convey information to the target. Information is considered successful if the content or message or information is delivered has been received by the desired target. Whereas the goal
Agricultural extension is the process of conveying information until it occurs behavior change on target. So the purpose of extension is far and wide compared to lighting.

b. Nature of communication

Information uses one-way communication

communication ); while agricultural counseling uses communication

two-way ( two-way communication ) or there is a reciprocal relationship between extension officers with the target of being farmers. Agricultural extension concerned with the process that occurs in the target that receives information, sure that the information is suitable for farmers, understood even
properly used to solve the problem.

c. Requirements for officers' abilities

The information officer must have the ability to deliver information, while agricultural extension officers in addition must have
the ability to convey a message, also must understand / master the contents

message, being able to package information according to farmers' conditions and needs, able to practice the material as desired message, able
provide feedback, be able to foster extrinsic motivation and intrinsically targeted to always want to increase its ability. With thus, extension workers need special education so that
have competency as a counselor.

d. How to approach

Lighting activities generally use a mass approach, i.e.

information is conveyed en masse through groups or through broadcasts radio, television and mass media. While counseling activities
use all approaches in stages according to the adoption stage

targets, for example en masse, groups and individuals. The process of learning goals preferred so that the approach used is adjusted
with target conditions and abilities in agricultural extension.

e. The nature of the message or material delivered

The message or material conveyed through information is general or free, meaning that information can be accepted or rejected by
target, will not affect the information officer. Meanwhile,

material in agricultural extension activities is generally specific, that is before the information is delivered, the extension officer must know problems, needs, and potential targets so that information or material packaged and presented according to the target conditions.


From the description above you have gotten an explanation that understanding

Agricultural extension is a non-formal education system for people adult / farmer, so they are able to take decisions from several alternatives exist to solve the problem in order
improve the welfare of his life in a sustainable manner. With

understand the meaning of agricultural extension and know that counseling is not just lighting, you get the picture
how heavy and large the role of an agricultural instructor. To be able to do his role correctly according to that understanding, then one agricultural extension workers are not only able to convey information, but more than that; that is, extension workers must be able to change or improve the behavior of farmers to be able to make decisions for
improvement of his life. Agricultural extension workers must be able to change farmers' knowledge and ability to become better and arouse
the will of farmers to always improve their welfare sustainably.
In order to be able to carry out this role, an agricultural instructor need to master some knowledge related to counseling. Any knowledge related to agricultural extension activities? Try discussing
with your friend. Begin your discussion by discussing understanding agricultural extension, then describe what abilities should be
owned in order to be able to do counseling according to that understanding. Describe the sciences needed to have the ability
the extension agent. Indirectly, you will discuss about

the roles, functions and tasks of agricultural instructors. Although the discussion about

the roles, functions and tasks of agricultural instructors will be presented in plengdut.com posting follows, it never hurts you to know some
on this plengdut.com Post 1.

The results of your discussion and your friends will certainly come to the conclusion that what must be mastered by an agricultural instructor is science
agriculture, as subject matter , both crop agriculture, animal husbandry,

and fisheries according to the specialization of interest. A counselor must mastering the sciences associated with the "process" of extension, namely science education, psychology, sociology, communication, and management. Besides
it may need anthropology, economics, and others according to interest extension agents and farmers' problems. Slamet (2003)
explain that the agricultural instructor is in charge of changing or improve "effort" while changing the "quality of farmers and farmers." the peopleâ € better. To change farming is needed
ability based on knowledge of agricultural science and technology

and the economy and business of agriculture, while changing farmers and the people need abilities based on knowledge of sociology
or society, adult education, social psychology, communication social, leadership, and other related sciences. On progress, agricultural extension is an interdisciplinary science.
In conducting extension activities, extension workers must apply

principles of teaching and learning especially on non-educational systems formal with adult participants; communication principles included in
the process of adopting and diffusing innovation; psychological principles, especially social psychology; sociological principles, including them understanding of individuals, their interactions in groups and society
and existing values; and management principles included

developing groups and organizations, and leadership; as well as science- other sciences interested in instructors. Depth and breadth of science
knowledge that must be mastered by someone depends on the level of specialization which is interested by an instructor, namely whether as an instructor
field agriculture ( subprofessional ) or expert agricultural extension

( professional ).

Thus, the public's assumption that anyone can

doing extension activities is not right. The above description is getting more make sure that not everyone can do counseling, like

which has been the people's opinion. A counselor must

mastering certain sciences. A more detailed description of the relationship

you will encounter these sciences with counseling in the discussion plengdut.com posting-next or on plengdut.com posts
other subjects. Hopefully the description in the post plengdut.com 1 can arouse your motivation to learn plengdut.com's further posts, also arouse curiosity and
your interest in studying other subjects. More importantly, it's easy-

hopefully this description will convince you how noble your role is; Your role as an agricultural instructor is highly expected by farmers
so that it can be involved in agricultural development in particular and national development in general which subsequently impacts
better farmers' welfare. Amen


After you study the description of the "understanding of counseling agriculture… above, try testing your level of understanding with
answer the following exercise questions. Try to answer yourself more

first, if you are still having trouble try to repeat understanding the Activity material

Study 2 above; only then will you discuss your answer

with study group friends. You must be active in the discussion in order really understand the material you are learning!

1) Explain the essence of the opinions of experts about the meaning of counseling agriculture!
2) Explain that agricultural extension is an educational process, link it

with the applied education system and target characteristics counseling!
3) Agricultural extension activities are not just lighting activities.


4) Do you agree that anyone can do activities agricultural extension. Explain!

Instructions on Exercise Answers

1) Each expert will provide an understanding of agricultural extension depending on the point of view of each or which concept
underlies his thought process and becomes his suppressor. However, all

the notion of counseling has the same concept. Some concepts in in terms of counseling delivered by experts are:
the education process; outside the formal education system (non- formal); for adults to find their way or be
know, able, and willing to choose various alternatives and make correct decision according to the problem; and increased welfare his life. Counseling is a process of helping people to help themselves . So, agricultural extension is an educational process with a non-formal education system, for adults, namely farmers and farm families to change their behavior, i.e. they become
know, able, and willing to choose various alternatives, make decisions

correct according to the problem, and increase his welfare. Based on the concepts and essence of understanding education agriculture, then agricultural extension must contain
concept: education, change and empowerment.

2) Education is the process of making a behavior change (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) target students with use certain methods in the expected direction. Based on
system that is applied, known as 3 education systems namely formal,

informal and informal. Based on known educational goals adult education ( adult education ) or andragogy and pedagogy . Agricultural extension is also a process of change target behavior ie farmers that are tailored to their needs,
potential, and conditions or characteristics of farmers, so farmers know, able, and willing to improve themselves and solve problems
faced, and improve knowledge, abilities, and

his will to have an impact on improving his welfare. Counseling is an adapted non-formal education system
needs and characteristics of the target, according to the problem being

confronted, and carried out in accordance with the agreement and target needs. Counseling is adult education
because farmers are adults as target students

various characteristics such as busyness to make a living, experience, thoughts and needs. So agricultural extension is a process

3) Agricultural extension activities are not just lighting activities. Right!

Information activities mean forwarding or delivering information

so that the target knows something new. Meanwhile, counseling agriculture is the process of conveying information, encouraging and grow awareness of farmers to want to make improvements themselves and want to choose and determine and make decisions from
various alternative information to solve the problem. That is, agricultural extension includes the internal processes in the farmers to
behavior change occurs, there is a feedback process between the instructor and the farmer. How to approach lighting in general in bulk,
meanwhile in counseling various approaches are used individual, group, or mass according to target conditions with
the main goal is a change in behavior in the target individual. So,

agricultural extension is not just an information activity, but more far and wider.
4) Not everyone can do agricultural extension activities.

Because agricultural extension is a non-formal education process for adults so as to be able to take decisions from a variety of alternatives exist to solve the problem in order
improve the welfare of his life. In conducting counseling, a counselor is not just able to convey
information (changing farmers' knowledge), but also must be able change farmers' behavior for the better (ability and attitude
farmer). Extension agents must be able to change farmers' farm quality and quality and its people. To be able to act as a counselor
reliable, the instructor must have competencies based on certain sciences, including agriculture, education,
psychology, communication, sociology, leadership, management, anthro- psychology and economics. Thus, not everyone can
conduct agricultural extension activities, before owning competencies obtained by studying these sciences.


Understanding agricultural extension is an educational process with non-formal education system to change adult behavior
in order to have better knowledge, skills and attitudes,
so that targets can choose and make decisions from a variety of alternative knowledge available to solve problems

Page 55

in an effort to improve his welfare. Important concepts
related to counseling are: the educational process (with the system non-formal education and adult education), the process of change (towards better behavior, as desired), and the process empowerment (having new knowledge and abilities).
Agricultural extension is broader and further than just activities
lighting. Counseling involves the process of feedback and communication there is an evaluation of the behavioral changes achieved in the target self.
Agricultural extension workers are not an easy role, they must
change the farming and behavior of farmers and their communities. An instructor must have certain competencies obtained
by mastering the agricultural sciences, education, psychology, communication, sociology, leadership, anthropology, and management; and other sciences that support for example economics. Level
depth and breadth in the mastery of these sciences
depending on the level of specialization the instructor wants, for example expert agricultural extension ( professional ) or field agricultural extension ( subprofessional ).


Choose the best answer!

1) Agricultural counseling is called a non-formal education system, because ....
A. ways, materials, and targets are adjusted to the needs and target situation
B. selective educational processes for targets that have experience
C. awareness and target needs for self improvement developed
D. The target consists of farmers, women farmers, and young farmers who are
outside the classroom

2) A term used in Malaysia which means "extension." agriculture ...
A. education
B. development
C. university extension
D. agricultural extension

Page 56

3) Agricultural extension is a process of change that has characteristics the following, except ....
A. planned
B. accelerated
C. there is human intervention
D. naturally

4) "Change" in the behavior of a farmer needs to be done, with the aim that farmer ....
A. able to obtain more development information
B. able to play a role and compete in development
C. can change lifestyle
D. can use new technology

5) Counseling is an empowerment effort, because ...
A. Extension as an effort to gather farmers' power
B. counseling requires outside influence
C. extension as a process of increasing the ability of farmers
D. empowerment as a process of growing farmer participation

6) Counseling has a broader and deeper understanding than just lighting, because ....
A. Counseling uses the feedback process
B. lighting uses two-way communication
C. counseling is the process of transmitting information
D. counseling using a mass approach

7) Counseling aims to change the behavior of farmers. For that, one extension agents must be able to, among other things ....
A. Convey information and wait for farmers to decide
B. changing the knowledge, abilities, and will of farmers C. take the decision to do the business and implement it D. choose one of several alternative decisions

8) The following is one of the characteristics of formal education,
except ....
A. Standard curriculum in accordance with the competencies to be produced
B. the target of extension is farmers, so it is relatively heterogeneous
C. education to prepare to solve future problems
D. interactions between instructors and students tend to be in a manner
vertical transmission

Page 57

9) The main factors that must be grown that underlie individual farmers so they can make changes and deal with their environment independently is ....
A. awareness and the need to change
B. the decision to look for new knowledge C. acceptance of invitation to make changes D. Extrinsic motivation for change

10) The final goal or long-term goal of agricultural extension activities is ....
A. Farmer's welfare increases
B. successful agricultural development
C. food production increases
D. farmers know new technologies

Match your answers with the Answer Key Formative Test 2 which is there is at the end of this post plengdut.com. Count it
the right answer. Then, use the following formula for
know the level of your mastery of Learning Activity material 2.

Mastery level =

Number of Correct Answers

Number of Questions


Meaning of mastery level: 90 - 100% = very good
80-89% = good
70 - 79% = enough
<70% = less

If you reach a mastery level of 80% or more, you can continue with the next post plengdut.com. Very nice! If still
under 80%, you must repeat the Learning Activity 2 material, especially
part                                         that                                     not yet                                   overpowered.

Page 58
Key Formative Test Answers

Formative Test 1                          Formative Test 2

1) C                                             1) A

2) B                                             2) B

3) A                                             3) D

4) D                                             4) B

5) A                                             5) C

6) B                                             6) A

7) C                                             7) B

8) A                                             8) B

9) A                                             9) A

10) A                                           10) A

Page 59

Agriculture department. 1978. 70 Years of Agricultural Extension in Indonesia

(1908-1978). Jakarta: BLPP, Ministry of Agriculture.

--------------------------. 2001. Agricultural Education . Jakarta: Foundation

Sinar Tani Development.

Slamet, M. 1994. Perspectives on Development Counseling to Meet the Era

Takeoff. Inside: Hubeis, AVS., Tjiptopranoto, P., and Ruwiyanto, W. (ed.). Development Counseling in Indonesia Welcoming the XXI Century. Jakarta: Self-Help Development Library Archipelago.

--------------------------. 2001a. Strengthen Position and Improve Roles Development Counseling. Inside: Pambudi, R. and Adhi, AK (ed.). Development in the Empowerment of Human Resources Towards
The realization of the Civil Society. Jakarta: PT Pustaka Entrepreneur


--------------------------. 2001b. The New Paradigm of Agricultural Education in the Era

Regional Autonomy . Paper presented at the PERHIPTANI 2001 Seminar in Tasikmalaya, West Java, October 21, 2001.

--------------------------. 2003. Prospects and Challenges of Extension Studies Agricultural Development in Indonesia . Paper presented at the Seminar at the Open University, Pondok Cabe, Ciputat, West Java, July 15, 2003.

Van den Ban, AW and HS Hawkins. 1999. Agricultural Education .

Yogyakarta: Canisius Publishers.

Wiriatmadja, S. 1973. Principles of Agricultural Counseling . Jakarta: Yasaguna.